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Table 4 Frequency (%) of attributes and sample quotations reported during concept elicitation interviews (Waves 1–3)

From: Development and content validation of the Pediatric Oral Medicines Acceptability Questionnaires (P-OMAQ): patient-reported and caregiver-reported outcome measures

Concepts (attributes) a,b Pediatric-reported, % (n)
(N = 23 d)
Caregiver-reported, % (n)
(N = 13 e)
Sample quotations by pediatric patients Sample quotations by caregivers
Taste (before swallowing) a 82.6 (19) 92.3 (12) “I mean it tastes a little weird … It’s like sometimes it’s hard to do it all in one go just because of the taste and everything” (age 11, liquid) “So at first she was kind of complaining that it tasted weird” (age 3, tablet)
Texture/mouth feel a 82.6 (19) 84.6 (11) “Like you accidentally eat sand” (age 12, pill) “He complains about the grittiness of it … like if you were anybody who’s ever eaten like grit that gritty feeling that you get, that aftertaste in your mouth” (age 12, pill)
Swallowability a 78.3 (18) 76.9 (10) “It’s easy to swallow because it’s a liquid” (age 9, liquid) “At first, um, it was harder for her to … understand how to swallow it and stuff” (age 3, tablet)
“So I think that maybe if the texture was thinner and easier to swallow, um, that it probably would be better” (age 2, liquid)
Size/amount a 73.9 (17) 76.9 (10) Question: “What is the most important thing for you when you decide if you like the medicine or not?”
Answer: “How it goes down and how big it is” (age 15, tablet)
“He will sometimes just tell me, you know, that he doesn’t like taking it. Or, um, that it’s just too much.”
(age 5, pill)
Aftertaste (taste after swallowing) a 47.8 (11) 46.2 (6) It didn’t really taste much once you swallowed it, but then a couple seconds later, um, then it just started to taste bitter” (age 10, tablet) “He wants to gag. So, I try to quickly give him some water … or like some apple juice so that that taste can get out of his mouth as quickly as possible” (age 4, liquid)
“… he don’t like the taste of it, it leaves a nasty taste, a nasty taste on his tongue … if he don’t like it. He will throw it up … he’ll remember that taste and he’ll slap it to the floor” (age 4, pill)
Smell a 43.5 (10) 53.8 (7) Question: “And what did it smell like to you?”
Answer: “Nasty … Bananas” (age 6, pill)
“… he will say, ‘I don’t like this smell.’ Or, ‘I’m not going to take this.’ And he won’t take it. So that’s one thing about him, is if it’s something that he don’t like and it’s making him sick, he doesn’t take it” (age 4, pill)
Dosing frequency b 8.7 (2) 7.7 (1) n/a n/a
Efficacy (helping patient to feel better) c 30.4 (7) 30.8 (4) n/a n/a
Side effects c 17.4 (4) 7.7 (1) n/a n/a
Preparation c 8.7 (2) 76.9 (10) n/a n/a
Appearance/color c 17.4 (4) 30.8 (4) n/a n/a
Overall ease of administration c 4.3 (1) Not reported n/a n/a
Packaging c Not reported 7.7 (1) n/a n/a
Portability c Not reported 7.7 (1) n/a n/a
  1. n/a not applicable
  2. aConcepts listed in normal (nonbold) font were included in the questionnaire
  3. bConcepts were retained despite being reported at a low frequency during the concept elicitation interviews based on patient endorsement during cognitive debriefing interviews
  4. cConcepts shown in bold were identified during the literature review and advisory panel meetings but were not included in the questionnaire, as they were reported at a low frequency during the concept elicitation interviews
  5. dThe total number of children interviewed in concept elicitation during Waves 1–3 was n = 23 (caregivers of children aged 6 months to 5 years were interviewed instead of the children). Frequency reports presented here are representative of patient feedback (i.e. additional caregiver feedback that may have been provided during concept elicitation is not included here)
  6. eThe total number of caregivers interviewed in concept elicitation during Waves 1–3 was n = 13 for children aged 6 months to 5 years