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Table 1 Patient Characteristics (n = 188)

From: Self-reported pain among Cambodian Americans with depression: patient-provider communication as an overlooked social determinant

Characteristic Frequency Percentage
Gender
Female 145 78.0%
Age
Mean ± SD 55.2 ± 8.9  
Health Insurance
Medicare/Medicaid
Private
Other
Don’t Know/Refused
106
64
8
8
57.0%
34.4%
4.3%
4.3%
Household Income
 < $20,000
$20,000—$30,000
$31,000—$40,000
Over $40,000
81
41
17
27
48.8%
24.7%
10.2%
16.3%
Working
Yes 67 36.0%
Education Years
Mean ± SD 6.9 ± 5.0  
English (% conversational/very well)
How well do you speak?
How well do you read?
59
55
31.7%
29.6%
Years in Khmer Rouge
Mean ± SD 3.2 ± 1.1  
Years in Refugee Camp
Mean ± SD 3.0 ± 5.2  
Food Insecurity
Yes 39 21.3%
Access to Car
Yes 139 74.7%
Difficulty Understanding Provider
Sometimes/Often/Always 80 43.6%
Difficulty Understanding Pharmacist
Sometimes/Often 9 5.6%
Social Isolation
Sometimes/Usually/Always 70 28.0%
Social Support
Mean ± SD 2.8 ± 0.9  
Post-traumatic stress symptoms
Mean ± SD 1.9 ± 0.6  
Depressive symptoms
Mean ± SD 1.9 ± 0.7  
Pain Score
0
1–2
3–4
5–6
7–8
68
22
40
32
24
36.6%
11.8%
21.5%
17.2%
12.9%