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Table 1 DCE attributes and levels

From: Patient and physician preferences for non-invasive diagnostic cardiovascular imaging technologies: a discrete choice experiment



Type of procedure

Exercising; pharmacological agents; breathing maneuvers


30 min; 60 min

Patient out-of-pocket cost

$500; $1000; $1500; $2000

Type of scanner

No scanner; Partial body scanner; Complete body scanner

Risks and side effects

Possible tingling in the fingers, dizziness and dry mouth; Possible chest pain, irregular heartbeat, flushing, and breathing difficulties and a 0.1% (1 in 1000) chance of serious complications such as heart attack; Exposure to radiation and a 0.1% (1 in 1000) increase in cancer risk

Diagnostic accuracy

90%; 80%; 70%

  1. Six attributes were drawn to characterize cardiovascular imaging tests. Between two and four levels were applied to each attribute