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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies

From: Content validity and measurement properties of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale in patients with fractures of the lower extremities: a systematic review

  Population Fracture characteristics Instrument administration
Studies in alphabethic order N Age Mean (SD, range) yr Gender % female Fracture (% of total sample) Location fracture(s) Treatment surgical/ non-surgical Time since fracture/treatment Setting Country Language
Binkley, Stratford [23] 107 Mean 44 (SD 16.2) 54.2% 10.2% Knee, thigh, foot, ankle Unclear 6 (0–250) weeks since onset Physical therapy clinics United States and Canada English
Garratt, Naumann [32] 959 (returned: 567) Mean 57.5 (Range 22.2- 91.2) 56.8% 100% Ankle (Weber A 2.6%, Weber B 67.5%, Weber C 27.5%) Operative fixation of closed ankle fractures  > 3 years after treatment 2 hospitals in SE Norway Norway Norwegian
Hsu, Tsai [31] 20 Median 38.0 (IQR 18.0) 70% 50% (100% cases) Ankle Cast Immobilization ± open reduction and internal fixation 4 months (median) after fracture Rehabilitation department of a teaching hospital Taiwan Chinese
Lin, Moseley [33] 306 Mean 45.1 (SD 15.7) 50.3% 100% Ankle 56.3% surgical Within 7 days of cast removal Outpatient physical therapy departments of 3 teaching hospitals, outpatient orthopedic clinic of 2 teaching hospitals Australia English
Ponkilainen, Tukiainen [36] 165 Mean 54.6 (SD 19.7) 54.5% 95.5% trauma (n = 156), infection (n = 6), tumor (n = 2) or osteoarthritis (n = 1) Ankle (n = 133), hindfoot (n = 16), midfoot (n = 7), forefoot (n = 3) or more locations (n = 6) Ankle fracture osteosynthesis, removal of implants from foot or ankle, tibiotalar joint fusion Averagely 4 years (range from 1 month to 10 years) after surgery Database Finland Finnish
Repo, Tukiainen [34] 166 Mean 55.0 (SD 16.0) 53% 90% ankle, foot 100% surgical 4 years (0–14) time since surgery Helsinki University Hospital Finland Finnish
Repo, Tukiainen [35] 182 Mean 55.0 (SD 16.0) 53.5% 89% ankle, foot 100% surgical 3.2 years (9.6) since surgery Helsinki University Hospital Finland Finnish