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Table 8 Test of Differential Item Function (DIF) between Saudi and US SF-36v2 versions

From: Psychometric validation of a Saudi Arabian version of the sf-36v2 health survey and norm data for Saudi Arabia

Item Abbreviated text dR2 DIF DIF direction for SA
PF01 … vigorous activities, such as running, lifting heavy objects, participating in strenuous sports? 0.021   
PF02 … moderate activities, such as moving a table, pushing a vacuum cleaner, bowling, or playing golf? 0.045 NU
PF03 … lifting or carrying groceries? 0.020   
PF04 … climbing several flights of stairs? 0.014   
PF05 … climbing one flight of stairs? 0.018   
PF06 … bending, kneeling, or stooping? 0.121 NU
PF07 … walking more than a mile? 0.027   
PF08 … walking several hundred yards? 0.010   
PF09 … walking one hundred yards? 0.001   
PF10 … bathing or dressing yourself? 0.035 NU
RP01 cut down on the amount of time 0.010   
RP02 accomplished less than you would like 0.008   
RP03 limited in the kind of work or other activities 0.000   
RP04 difficulty performing the work or other activities 0.000   
BP01 How much bodily pain have you had during the past 4 weeks? 0.005   
BP02 how much did pain interfere with your normal work 0.008   
GH01 In general, would you say your health is: 0.088 NU
GH02 seem to get sick a little easier than other people 0.039 U
GH03 as healthy as anybody I know 0.001   
GH04 I expect my health to get worse 0.001   
GH05 health is excellent 0.058 NU
VT01 did you feel full of life? 0.001   
VT02 did you have a lot of energy? 0.011   
VT03 did you feel worn out? 0.010   
VT04 did you feel tired? 0.003   
SF01 your normal social activities with family, friends, neighbors, or groups? 0.002   
SF02 your social activities (like visiting with friends, relatives, etc.)? 0.003   
RE01 Cut down on the amount of time you spent on work or other activities 0.004   
RE02 Accomplished less than you would like 0.004   
RE03 Did work or other activities less carefully than usual 0.031 U
MH01 been very nervous? 0.000   
MH02 felt so down in the dumps that nothing could cheer you up? 0.000   
MH03 felt calm and peaceful? 0.052 U
MH04 felt downhearted and depressed? 0.001   
MH05 been happy? 0.034 U
  1. dR2: Increase in explained item variance by including DIF term, values > 0.03 in bold, NU: non-uniform DIF, U: uniform DIF, ↑: Item score in Saudi Arabia tended to be higher than would be expected from anchor items, ↓: Item score in Saudi Arabia tended to be lower than would be expected from anchor items