Raw (total) scores and corresponding IRT-scoresa Probability of a US physician endorsing each item at a frequency of “once a week” or more EE raw score EE IRTz-score (θ) (se) EE IRT t-score (se) EE itemsb EE1: emotionally drained from work$${P}_{4_{EE1}}$$(θ) EE2: used up at end of workday$${P}_{4_{EE2}}$$(θ) EE3: fatigued when get up$${P}_{4_{EE3}}$$(θ) EE5: burned out from work$${P}_{4_{EE5}}$$(θ) EE6: frustrated by job$${P}_{4_{EE6}}$$(θ) EE7: working too hard on job$${P}_{4_{EE7}}$$(θ) EE4EE8: working with people is a real strain and/or puts too much stress on me$${P}_{8_{EE4 EE8}}$$(θ) EE9: at the end of my rope$${P}_{4_{EE9}}$$(θ) 0 −2.51 (0.43) 24.92 (4.26) 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.000 1 −2.13 (0.32) 28.72 (3.21) 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.005 0.008 0.004 0.000 2 −1.91 (0.30) 30.92 (2.95) 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.009 0.014 0.005 0.001 3 −1.74 (0.28) 32.58 (2.82) 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.000 0.014 0.021 0.006 0.001 4 −1.60 (0.27) 33.96 (2.72) 0.001 0.005 0.003 0.000 0.020 0.030 0.008 0.002 5 −1.49 (0.27) 35.14 (2.67) 0.002 0.008 0.005 0.000 0.027 0.039 0.009 0.002 6 −1.38 (0.26) 36.20 (2.62) 0.003 0.012 0.007 0.001 0.036 0.050 0.011 0.003 7 −1.28 (0.26) 37.19 (2.58) 0.005 0.018 0.009 0.001 0.047 0.063 0.013 0.004 8 −1.19 (0.26) 38.10 (2.55) 0.008 0.026 0.012 0.002 0.059 0.077 0.015 0.005 9 −1.10 (0.25) 38.96 (2.53) 0.012 0.036 0.016 0.003 0.075 0.095 0.017 0.006 10 −1.02 (0.25) 39.78 (2.51) 0.016 0.049 0.021 0.004 0.091 0.113 0.019 0.007 11 −0.94 (0.25) 40.56 (2.49) 0.023 0.066 0.027 0.005 0.111 0.134 0.021 0.009 12 −0.87 (0.25) 41.30 (2.47) 0.031 0.084 0.033 0.007 0.131 0.155 0.024 0.010 13 −0.80 (0.25) 42.02 (2.45) 0.041 0.108 0.041 0.009 0.155 0.179 0.026 0.012 14 −0.73 (0.24) 42.71 (2.44) 0.055 0.138 0.051 0.012 0.181 0.205 0.029 0.015 15 −0.66 (0.24) 43.38 (2.43) 0.073 0.174 0.062 0.017 0.211 0.235 0.032 0.017 16 −0.60 (0.24) 44.04 (2.42) 0.121 0.259 0.091 0.029 0.277 0.296 0.035 0.024 17 −0.53 (0.24) 44.68 (2.41) 0.151 0.307 0.107 0.038 0.311 0.328 0.039 0.027 18 −0.47 (0.24) 45.30 (2.41) 0.187 0.359 0.127 0.048 0.347 0.361 0.043 0.031 19 −0.41 (0.24) 45.92 (2.40) 0.230 0.414 0.149 0.062 0.385 0.395 0.047 0.036 20 −0.35 (0.24) 46.53 (2.40) 0.279 0.472 0.175 0.079 0.424 0.431 0.051 0.042 21 −0.29 (0.24) 47.13 (2.40) 0.334 0.531 0.204 0.100 0.465 0.467 0.055 0.048 22 −0.23 (0.24) 47.73 (2.41) 0.344 0.541 0.209 0.104 0.471 0.473 0.060 0.049 23 −0.17 (0.24) 48.32 (2.41) 0.394 0.589 0.236 0.127 0.505 0.504 0.066 0.055 24 −0.11 (0.24) 48.91 (2.42) 0.457 0.644 0.271 0.158 0.546 0.540 0.072 0.063 25 −0.05 (0.24) 49.51 (2.44) 0.522 0.696 0.310 0.196 0.587 0.576 0.078 0.072 26 0.01 (0.25) 50.10 (2.45) 0.565 0.728 0.338 0.225 0.613 0.600 0.082 0.079 27 0.07 (0.25) 50.70 (2.48) 0.647 0.786 0.396 0.292 0.663 0.646 0.092 0.094 28 0.13 (0.25) 51.30 (2.50) 0.704 0.823 0.442 0.349 0.699 0.679 0.100 0.107 29 0.19 (0.25) 51.90 (2.53) 0.755 0.854 0.489 0.411 0.732 0.710 0.109 0.122 30 0.25 (0.26) 52.51 (2.57) 0.800 0.881 0.536 0.475 0.763 0.739 0.118 0.139 31 0.31 (0.26) 53.13 (2.61) 0.838 0.904 0.582 0.540 0.791 0.766 0.128 0.157 32 0.37 (0.26) 53.75 (2.65) 0.870 0.922 0.627 0.604 0.817 0.792 0.138 0.177 33 0.44 (0.27) 54.38 (2.69) 0.901 0.940 0.677 0.674 0.844 0.818 0.151 0.204 34 0.50 (0.27) 55.01 (2.74) 0.922 0.952 0.717 0.729 0.864 0.839 0.163 0.228 35 0.57 (0.28) 55.65 (2.80) 0.941 0.963 0.759 0.785 0.885 0.861 0.178 0.260 36 0.63 (0.29) 56.30 (2.85) 0.954 0.971 0.792 0.826 0.901 0.878 0.192 0.289 37 0.70 (0.29) 56.96 (2.92) 0.965 0.977 0.826 0.866 0.917 0.895 0.209 0.325 38 0.76 (0.30) 57.64 (2.99) 0.973 0.982 0.851 0.893 0.928 0.908 0.225 0.358 39 0.83 (0.31) 58.34 (3.07) 0.980 0.986 0.877 0.919 0.940 0.921 0.244 0.398 40 0.91 (0.32) 59.06 (3.17) 0.986 0.990 0.902 0.942 0.951 0.934 0.267 0.445 41 0.98 (0.33) 59.82 (3.30) 0.989 0.992 0.919 0.956 0.959 0.944 0.288 0.487 42 1.06 (0.34) 60.61 (3.45) 0.993 0.994 0.936 0.969 0.967 0.953 0.314 0.536 43 1.14 (0.35) 61.39 (3.54) 0.995 0.996 0.950 0.978 0.973 0.961 0.341 0.584 44 1.22 (0.37) 62.22 (3.66) 0.996 0.997 0.960 0.984 0.979 0.968 0.369 0.630 45 1.30 (0.37) 63.04 (3.74) 0.997 0.998 0.969 0.989 0.983 0.974 0.397 0.674 46 1.39 (0.38) 63.89 (3.81) 0.998 0.998 0.976 0.992 0.986 0.979 0.431 0.720 47 1.48 (0.39) 64.79 (3.90) 0.999 0.999 0.983 0.995 0.990 0.983 0.465 0.767 48 1.57 (0.40) 65.69 (3.99) 0.999 0.999 0.986 0.997 0.992 0.986 0.499 0.800 49 1.66 (0.40) 66.57 (3.97) 0.999 0.999 0.990 0.998 0.993 0.989 0.533 0.832 50 1.77 (0.41) 67.70 (4.08) 1.000 1.000 0.993 0.999 0.995 0.991 0.574 0.866 51 1.89 (0.41) 68.88 (4.14) 1.000 1.000 0.995 0.999 0.996 0.994 0.618 0.897 52 2.05 (0.44) 70.55 (4.42) 1.000 1.000 0.997 1.000 0.998 0.996 0.674 0.928 53 2.21 (0.46) 72.13 (4.63) 1.000 1.000 0.998 1.000 0.999 0.997 0.725 0.950 54 2.51 (0.52) 75.14 (5.25) 1.000 1.000 0.999 1.000 0.999 0.999 0.806 0.975 DP raw score DP IRTz-score (θ) (se) DP IRT t-score (se) DP itemsc DP1: treat patients as impersonal objects$${P}_{4_{DP1}}$$(θ) DP2: more callous toward people$${P}_{4_{DP2}}$$(θ) DP3: worry job hardening me emotionally$${P}_{4_{DP3}}$$(θ) DP4: don’t really care what happens to some patients$${P}_{4_{DP4}}$$(θ) DP5: patients blame me for some problems$${P}_{4_{DP5}}$$(θ) 0 −1.52 (0.60) 34.81 (6.03) 0.004 0.000 0.002 0.003 0.059 1 −1.13 (0.53) 38.71 (5.32) 0.007 0.000 0.006 0.005 0.087 2 −0.78 (0.49) 42.19 (4.87) 0.014 0.001 0.015 0.009 0.122 3 −0.57 (0.48) 44.26 (4.85) 0.020 0.003 0.026 0.012 0.148 4 −0.41 (0.48) 45.91 (4.80) 0.026 0.005 0.039 0.015 0.171 5 −0.29 (0.49) 47.10 (4.93) 0.032 0.008 0.054 0.018 0.190 6 −0.15 (0.47) 48.54 (4.68) 0.041 0.014 0.076 0.022 0.214 7 0.01 (0.43) 50.06 (4.27) 0.053 0.026 0.112 0.029 0.244 8 0.14 (0.41) 51.39 (4.10) 0.066 0.043 0.152 0.035 0.270 9 0.26 (0.40) 52.61 (4.01) 0.080 0.068 0.198 0.042 0.296 10 0.38 (0.39) 53.76 (3.95) 0.097 0.105 0.253 0.050 0.324 11 0.49 (0.39) 54.86 (3.90) 0.116 0.154 0.313 0.059 0.350 12 0.59 (0.39) 55.94 (3.87) 0.135 0.214 0.373 0.068 0.375 13 0.70 (0.38) 57.00 (3.85) 0.159 0.296 0.444 0.079 0.403 14 0.80 (0.38) 58.04 (3.84) 0.184 0.385 0.511 0.092 0.428 15 0.91 (0.38) 59.08 (3.84) 0.215 0.493 0.583 0.107 0.457 16 1.01 (0.39) 60.11 (3.86) 0.247 0.591 0.647 0.123 0.484 17 1.12 (0.39) 61.15 (3.90) 0.284 0.692 0.711 0.142 0.514 18 1.22 (0.39) 62.19 (3.94) 0.322 0.770 0.762 0.162 0.540 19 1.32 (0.40) 63.23 (3.99) 0.361 0.833 0.807 0.185 0.567 20 1.43 (0.40) 64.29 (4.04) 0.407 0.885 0.849 0.212 0.595 21 1.54 (0.41) 65.38 (4.10) 0.454 0.923 0.883 0.242 0.623 22 1.65 (0.42) 66.53 (4.19) 0.503 0.949 0.910 0.274 0.650 23 1.77 (0.43) 67.73 (4.31) 0.555 0.968 0.933 0.313 0.679 24 1.89 (0.44) 68.94 (4.42) 0.607 0.980 0.951 0.355 0.706 25 2.01 (0.45) 70.13 (4.49) 0.656 0.987 0.964 0.399 0.732 26 2.14 (0.45) 71.42 (4.53) 0.706 0.992 0.974 0.448 0.758 27 2.30 (0.46) 72.97 (4.58) 0.761 0.996 0.983 0.510 0.788 28 2.49 (0.47) 74.93 (4.67) 0.816 0.998 0.990 0.583 0.820 29 2.73 (0.49) 77.32 (4.94) 0.871 0.999 0.995 0.670 0.855 30 3.05 (0.55) 80.49 (5.51) 0.923 1.000 0.998 0.770 0.893 PA raw score PA IRTz-score (θ) (se) PA IRT t-score (se) PA itemsd PA1: Easily understand how patients feel$${P}_{4_{PA1}}$$(θ) PA2: deal very effectively with problems of patients$${P}_{4_{PA2}}$$(θ) PA3: positively influencing other people’s lives through work$${P}_{4_{PA3}}$$(θ) PA4: feel very energetic$${P}_{4_{PA4}}$$(θ) PA5: can easily create relaxed atmosphere with patients$${P}_{4_{PA5}}$$(θ) PA6: exhilarated after working closely with patients$${P}_{4_{PA6}}$$(θ) PA7: accomplished many worthwhile things in job$${P}_{4_{PA7}}\left(\theta \right)$$ PA8: deal with emotional problems very calmly$${P}_{4_{PA8}}$$(θ) 0 −3.91 (0.48) 10.91 (4.83) 0.217 0.083 0.002 0.013 0.019 0.002 0.001 0.110 1 −3.71 (0.45) 12.85 (4.54) 0.256 0.111 0.004 0.018 0.027 0.003 0.002 0.137 2 −3.56 (0.44) 14.36 (4.40) 0.288 0.138 0.006 0.022 0.035 0.004 0.003 0.159 3 −3.45 (0.43) 15.51 (4.33) 0.313 0.161 0.008 0.026 0.043 0.005 0.004 0.178 4 −3.34 (0.42) 16.65 (4.22) 0.340 0.187 0.010 0.030 0.052 0.006 0.005 0.199 5 −3.23 (0.42) 17.67 (4.16) 0.367 0.215 0.013 0.035 0.063 0.008 0.006 0.221 6 −3.14 (0.41) 18.64 (4.09) 0.390 0.241 0.017 0.040 0.074 0.010 0.008 0.240 7 −3.04 (0.40) 19.61 (4.01) 0.417 0.272 0.021 0.046 0.088 0.012 0.010 0.263 8 −2.95 (0.39) 20.52 (3.95) 0.441 0.302 0.027 0.052 0.102 0.014 0.013 0.285 9 −2.86 (0.39) 21.42 (3.89) 0.465 0.334 0.033 0.059 0.119 0.016 0.016 0.307 10 −2.77 (0.38) 22.28 (3.84) 0.489 0.367 0.042 0.066 0.138 0.019 0.020 0.331 11 −2.69 (0.38) 23.12 (3.79) 0.511 0.398 0.050 0.074 0.157 0.023 0.024 0.353 12 −2.61 (0.38) 23.94 (3.75) 0.533 0.430 0.061 0.082 0.178 0.026 0.029 0.375 13 −2.53 (0.37) 24.74 (3.72) 0.554 0.462 0.074 0.091 0.201 0.031 0.036 0.398 14 −2.45 (0.37) 25.52 (3.69) 0.576 0.495 0.089 0.101 0.226 0.036 0.043 0.422 15 −2.37 (0.37) 26.30 (3.66) 0.597 0.527 0.107 0.112 0.253 0.041 0.052 0.446 16 −2.29 (0.36) 27.07 (3.64) 0.618 0.560 0.129 0.124 0.283 0.048 0.063 0.470 17 −2.22 (0.36) 27.83 (3.62) 0.636 0.588 0.150 0.136 0.310 0.055 0.075 0.491 18 −2.14 (0.36) 28.58 (3.60) 0.656 0.619 0.178 0.150 0.343 0.063 0.090 0.515 19 −2.07 (0.36) 29.33 (3.59) 0.673 0.645 0.206 0.163 0.373 0.072 0.106 0.537 20 −1.99 (0.36) 30.08 (3.59) 0.692 0.675 0.241 0.180 0.409 0.083 0.126 0.561 21 −1.92 (0.36) 30.82 (3.58) 0.708 0.699 0.275 0.195 0.441 0.094 0.147 0.581 22 −1.84 (0.36) 31.57 (3.58) 0.725 0.726 0.318 0.214 0.478 0.108 0.174 0.605 23 −1.77 (0.36) 32.32 (3.58) 0.740 0.748 0.358 0.231 0.511 0.122 0.201 0.625 24 −1.69 (0.36) 33.07 (3.58) 0.757 0.772 0.406 0.253 0.548 0.139 0.236 0.647 25 −1.62 (0.36) 33.83 (3.59) 0.770 0.791 0.450 0.272 0.581 0.157 0.269 0.667 26 −1.54 (0.36) 34.60 (3.60) 0.785 0.812 0.501 0.296 0.617 0.178 0.311 0.688 27 −1.46 (0.36) 35.38 (3.61) 0.800 0.831 0.552 0.320 0.651 0.202 0.355 0.708 28 −1.38 (0.36) 36.17 (3.62) 0.813 0.849 0.601 0.346 0.685 0.229 0.403 0.728 29 −1.30 (0.36) 36.98 (3.64) 0.826 0.865 0.649 0.373 0.716 0.257 0.453 0.747 30 −1.22 (0.37) 37.80 (3.66) 0.838 0.879 0.694 0.400 0.746 0.288 0.503 0.765 31 −1.14 (0.37) 38.64 (3.68) 0.850 0.892 0.736 0.428 0.773 0.321 0.553 0.782 32 −1.05 (0.37) 39.50 (3.71) 0.862 0.906 0.778 0.460 0.801 0.361 0.609 0.800 33 −0.96 (0.37) 40.39 (3.74) 0.873 0.917 0.815 0.493 0.827 0.402 0.661 0.817 34 −0.87 (0.38) 41.30 (3.78) 0.884 0.928 0.847 0.525 0.850 0.445 0.710 0.832 35 −0.78 (0.38) 42.25 (3.82) 0.893 0.937 0.875 0.558 0.870 0.488 0.755 0.847 36 −0.68 (0.39) 43.23 (3.87) 0.903 0.946 0.900 0.593 0.890 0.537 0.799 0.862 37 −0.57 (0.39) 44.26 (3.92) 0.913 0.955 0.923 0.631 0.908 0.590 0.840 0.877 38 −0.47 (0.40) 45.33 (3.99) 0.922 0.961 0.939 0.664 0.923 0.636 0.871 0.890 39 −0.35 (0.41) 46.48 (4.07) 0.931 0.968 0.954 0.701 0.938 0.688 0.901 0.903 40 −0.23 (0.42) 47.69 (4.16) 0.939 0.973 0.966 0.736 0.949 0.736 0.925 0.915 41 −0.10 (0.43) 48.99 (4.27) 0.946 0.978 0.975 0.771 0.960 0.782 0.945 0.927 42 0.04 (0.44) 50.38 (4.37) 0.953 0.983 0.983 0.805 0.969 0.825 0.961 0.937 43 0.19 (0.44) 51.89 (4.42) 0.960 0.986 0.988 0.837 0.976 0.863 0.973 0.947 44 0.36 (0.45) 53.61 (4.52) 0.967 0.990 0.992 0.868 0.983 0.898 0.982 0.957 45 0.56 (0.46) 55.58 (4.62) 0.973 0.993 0.995 0.897 0.988 0.929 0.989 0.966 46 0.80 (0.47) 58.03 (4.73) 0.979 0.995 0.997 0.925 0.992 0.954 0.994 0.974 47 1.15 (0.52) 61.47 (5.21) 0.986 0.997 0.999 0.954 0.996 0.976 0.998 0.983 48 1.62 (0.61) 66.22 (6.07) 0.991 0.999 1.000 0.976 0.998 0.990 0.999 0.990