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Table 3 Crosswalks mapping raw (total) Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization (DP), and Personal Accomplishment (PA) subscale scores to IRT-based scores and response profiles

From: Describing the emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment symptoms associated with Maslach Burnout Inventory subscale scores in US physicians: an item response theory analysis

Raw (total) scores and corresponding IRT-scoresaProbability of a US physician endorsing each item at a frequency of “once a week” or more
EE raw scoreEE IRT
z-score (θ) (se)
EE IRT t-score (se)EE itemsb
EE1: emotionally drained from work
\( {P}_{4_{EE1}} \)(θ)
EE2: used up at end of workday
\( {P}_{4_{EE2}} \)(θ)
EE3: fatigued when get up
\( {P}_{4_{EE3}} \)(θ)
EE5: burned out from work
\( {P}_{4_{EE5}} \)(θ)
EE6: frustrated by job
\( {P}_{4_{EE6}} \)(θ)
EE7: working too hard on job
\( {P}_{4_{EE7}} \)(θ)
EE4EE8: working with people is a real strain and/or puts too much stress on me
\( {P}_{8_{EE4 EE8}} \)(θ)
EE9: at the end of my rope
\( {P}_{4_{EE9}} \)(θ)
0−2.51 (0.43)24.92 (4.26)0.0000.0000.0000.0000.0020.0030.0020.000
1−2.13 (0.32)28.72 (3.21)0.0000.0010.0010.0000.0050.0080.0040.000
2−1.91 (0.30)30.92 (2.95)0.0000.0020.0010.0000.0090.0140.0050.001
3−1.74 (0.28)32.58 (2.82)0.0010.0030.0020.0000.0140.0210.0060.001
4−1.60 (0.27)33.96 (2.72)0.0010.0050.0030.0000.0200.0300.0080.002
5−1.49 (0.27)35.14 (2.67)0.0020.0080.0050.0000.0270.0390.0090.002
6−1.38 (0.26)36.20 (2.62)0.0030.0120.0070.0010.0360.0500.0110.003
7−1.28 (0.26)37.19 (2.58)0.0050.0180.0090.0010.0470.0630.0130.004
8−1.19 (0.26)38.10 (2.55)0.0080.0260.0120.0020.0590.0770.0150.005
9−1.10 (0.25)38.96 (2.53)0.0120.0360.0160.0030.0750.0950.0170.006
10−1.02 (0.25)39.78 (2.51)0.0160.0490.0210.0040.0910.1130.0190.007
11−0.94 (0.25)40.56 (2.49)0.0230.0660.0270.0050.1110.1340.0210.009
12−0.87 (0.25)41.30 (2.47)0.0310.0840.0330.0070.1310.1550.0240.010
13−0.80 (0.25)42.02 (2.45)0.0410.1080.0410.0090.1550.1790.0260.012
14−0.73 (0.24)42.71 (2.44)0.0550.1380.0510.0120.1810.2050.0290.015
15−0.66 (0.24)43.38 (2.43)0.0730.1740.0620.0170.2110.2350.0320.017
16−0.60 (0.24)44.04 (2.42)0.1210.2590.0910.0290.2770.2960.0350.024
17−0.53 (0.24)44.68 (2.41)0.1510.3070.1070.0380.3110.3280.0390.027
18−0.47 (0.24)45.30 (2.41)0.1870.3590.1270.0480.3470.3610.0430.031
19−0.41 (0.24)45.92 (2.40)0.2300.4140.1490.0620.3850.3950.0470.036
20−0.35 (0.24)46.53 (2.40)0.2790.4720.1750.0790.4240.4310.0510.042
21−0.29 (0.24)47.13 (2.40)0.3340.5310.2040.1000.4650.4670.0550.048
22−0.23 (0.24)47.73 (2.41)0.3440.5410.2090.1040.4710.4730.0600.049
23−0.17 (0.24)48.32 (2.41)0.3940.5890.2360.1270.5050.5040.0660.055
24−0.11 (0.24)48.91 (2.42)0.4570.6440.2710.1580.5460.5400.0720.063
25−0.05 (0.24)49.51 (2.44)0.5220.6960.3100.1960.5870.5760.0780.072
260.01 (0.25)50.10 (2.45)0.5650.7280.3380.2250.6130.6000.0820.079
270.07 (0.25)50.70 (2.48)0.6470.7860.3960.2920.6630.6460.0920.094
280.13 (0.25)51.30 (2.50)0.7040.8230.4420.3490.6990.6790.1000.107
290.19 (0.25)51.90 (2.53)0.7550.8540.4890.4110.7320.7100.1090.122
300.25 (0.26)52.51 (2.57)0.8000.8810.5360.4750.7630.7390.1180.139
310.31 (0.26)53.13 (2.61)0.8380.9040.5820.5400.7910.7660.1280.157
320.37 (0.26)53.75 (2.65)0.8700.9220.6270.6040.8170.7920.1380.177
330.44 (0.27)54.38 (2.69)0.9010.9400.6770.6740.8440.8180.1510.204
340.50 (0.27)55.01 (2.74)0.9220.9520.7170.7290.8640.8390.1630.228
350.57 (0.28)55.65 (2.80)0.9410.9630.7590.7850.8850.8610.1780.260
360.63 (0.29)56.30 (2.85)0.9540.9710.7920.8260.9010.8780.1920.289
370.70 (0.29)56.96 (2.92)0.9650.9770.8260.8660.9170.8950.2090.325
380.76 (0.30)57.64 (2.99)0.9730.9820.8510.8930.9280.9080.2250.358
390.83 (0.31)58.34 (3.07)0.9800.9860.8770.9190.9400.9210.2440.398
400.91 (0.32)59.06 (3.17)0.9860.9900.9020.9420.9510.9340.2670.445
410.98 (0.33)59.82 (3.30)0.9890.9920.9190.9560.9590.9440.2880.487
421.06 (0.34)60.61 (3.45)0.9930.9940.9360.9690.9670.9530.3140.536
431.14 (0.35)61.39 (3.54)0.9950.9960.9500.9780.9730.9610.3410.584
441.22 (0.37)62.22 (3.66)0.9960.9970.9600.9840.9790.9680.3690.630
451.30 (0.37)63.04 (3.74)0.9970.9980.9690.9890.9830.9740.3970.674
461.39 (0.38)63.89 (3.81)0.9980.9980.9760.9920.9860.9790.4310.720
471.48 (0.39)64.79 (3.90)0.9990.9990.9830.9950.9900.9830.4650.767
481.57 (0.40)65.69 (3.99)0.9990.9990.9860.9970.9920.9860.4990.800
491.66 (0.40)66.57 (3.97)0.9990.9990.9900.9980.9930.9890.5330.832
501.77 (0.41)67.70 (4.08)1.0001.0000.9930.9990.9950.9910.5740.866
511.89 (0.41)68.88 (4.14)1.0001.0000.9950.9990.9960.9940.6180.897
522.05 (0.44)70.55 (4.42)1.0001.0000.9971.0000.9980.9960.6740.928
532.21 (0.46)72.13 (4.63)1.0001.0000.9981.0000.9990.9970.7250.950
542.51 (0.52)75.14 (5.25)1.0001.0000.9991.0000.9990.9990.8060.975
DP raw scoreDP IRT
z-score (θ) (se)
DP IRT t-score (se)DP itemsc
DP1: treat patients as impersonal objects
\( {P}_{4_{DP1}} \)(θ)
DP2: more callous toward people
\( {P}_{4_{DP2}} \)(θ)
DP3: worry job hardening me emotionally
\( {P}_{4_{DP3}} \)(θ)
DP4: don’t really care what happens to some patients
\( {P}_{4_{DP4}} \)(θ)
DP5: patients blame me for some problems
\( {P}_{4_{DP5}} \)(θ)
0−1.52 (0.60)34.81 (6.03)0.0040.0000.0020.0030.059
1−1.13 (0.53)38.71 (5.32)0.0070.0000.0060.0050.087
2−0.78 (0.49)42.19 (4.87)0.0140.0010.0150.0090.122
3−0.57 (0.48)44.26 (4.85)0.0200.0030.0260.0120.148
4−0.41 (0.48)45.91 (4.80)0.0260.0050.0390.0150.171
5−0.29 (0.49)47.10 (4.93)0.0320.0080.0540.0180.190
6−0.15 (0.47)48.54 (4.68)0.0410.0140.0760.0220.214
70.01 (0.43)50.06 (4.27)0.0530.0260.1120.0290.244
80.14 (0.41)51.39 (4.10)0.0660.0430.1520.0350.270
90.26 (0.40)52.61 (4.01)0.0800.0680.1980.0420.296
100.38 (0.39)53.76 (3.95)0.0970.1050.2530.0500.324
110.49 (0.39)54.86 (3.90)0.1160.1540.3130.0590.350
120.59 (0.39)55.94 (3.87)0.1350.2140.3730.0680.375
130.70 (0.38)57.00 (3.85)0.1590.2960.4440.0790.403
140.80 (0.38)58.04 (3.84)0.1840.3850.5110.0920.428
150.91 (0.38)59.08 (3.84)0.2150.4930.5830.1070.457
161.01 (0.39)60.11 (3.86)0.2470.5910.6470.1230.484
171.12 (0.39)61.15 (3.90)0.2840.6920.7110.1420.514
181.22 (0.39)62.19 (3.94)0.3220.7700.7620.1620.540
191.32 (0.40)63.23 (3.99)0.3610.8330.8070.1850.567
201.43 (0.40)64.29 (4.04)0.4070.8850.8490.2120.595
211.54 (0.41)65.38 (4.10)0.4540.9230.8830.2420.623
221.65 (0.42)66.53 (4.19)0.5030.9490.9100.2740.650
231.77 (0.43)67.73 (4.31)0.5550.9680.9330.3130.679
241.89 (0.44)68.94 (4.42)0.6070.9800.9510.3550.706
252.01 (0.45)70.13 (4.49)0.6560.9870.9640.3990.732
262.14 (0.45)71.42 (4.53)0.7060.9920.9740.4480.758
272.30 (0.46)72.97 (4.58)0.7610.9960.9830.5100.788
282.49 (0.47)74.93 (4.67)0.8160.9980.9900.5830.820
292.73 (0.49)77.32 (4.94)0.8710.9990.9950.6700.855
303.05 (0.55)80.49 (5.51)0.9231.0000.9980.7700.893
PA raw scorePA IRT
z-score (θ) (se)
PA IRT t-score (se)PA itemsd
PA1: Easily understand how patients feel
\( {P}_{4_{PA1}} \)(θ)
PA2: deal very effectively with problems of patients
\( {P}_{4_{PA2}} \)(θ)
PA3: positively influencing other people’s lives through work
\( {P}_{4_{PA3}} \)(θ)
PA4: feel very energetic
\( {P}_{4_{PA4}} \)(θ)
PA5: can easily create relaxed atmosphere with patients
\( {P}_{4_{PA5}} \)(θ)
PA6: exhilarated after working closely with patients
\( {P}_{4_{PA6}} \)(θ)
PA7: accomplished many worthwhile things in job
\( {P}_{4_{PA7}}\left(\theta \right) \)
PA8: deal with emotional problems very calmly
\( {P}_{4_{PA8}} \)(θ)
0−3.91 (0.48)10.91 (4.83)0.2170.0830.0020.0130.0190.0020.0010.110
1−3.71 (0.45)12.85 (4.54)0.2560.1110.0040.0180.0270.0030.0020.137
2−3.56 (0.44)14.36 (4.40)0.2880.1380.0060.0220.0350.0040.0030.159
3−3.45 (0.43)15.51 (4.33)0.3130.1610.0080.0260.0430.0050.0040.178
4−3.34 (0.42)16.65 (4.22)0.3400.1870.0100.0300.0520.0060.0050.199
5−3.23 (0.42)17.67 (4.16)0.3670.2150.0130.0350.0630.0080.0060.221
6−3.14 (0.41)18.64 (4.09)0.3900.2410.0170.0400.0740.0100.0080.240
7−3.04 (0.40)19.61 (4.01)0.4170.2720.0210.0460.0880.0120.0100.263
8−2.95 (0.39)20.52 (3.95)0.4410.3020.0270.0520.1020.0140.0130.285
9−2.86 (0.39)21.42 (3.89)0.4650.3340.0330.0590.1190.0160.0160.307
10−2.77 (0.38)22.28 (3.84)0.4890.3670.0420.0660.1380.0190.0200.331
11−2.69 (0.38)23.12 (3.79)0.5110.3980.0500.0740.1570.0230.0240.353
12−2.61 (0.38)23.94 (3.75)0.5330.4300.0610.0820.1780.0260.0290.375
13−2.53 (0.37)24.74 (3.72)0.5540.4620.0740.0910.2010.0310.0360.398
14−2.45 (0.37)25.52 (3.69)0.5760.4950.0890.1010.2260.0360.0430.422
15−2.37 (0.37)26.30 (3.66)0.5970.5270.1070.1120.2530.0410.0520.446
16−2.29 (0.36)27.07 (3.64)0.6180.5600.1290.1240.2830.0480.0630.470
17−2.22 (0.36)27.83 (3.62)0.6360.5880.1500.1360.3100.0550.0750.491
18−2.14 (0.36)28.58 (3.60)0.6560.6190.1780.1500.3430.0630.0900.515
19−2.07 (0.36)29.33 (3.59)0.6730.6450.2060.1630.3730.0720.1060.537
20−1.99 (0.36)30.08 (3.59)0.6920.6750.2410.1800.4090.0830.1260.561
21−1.92 (0.36)30.82 (3.58)0.7080.6990.2750.1950.4410.0940.1470.581
22−1.84 (0.36)31.57 (3.58)0.7250.7260.3180.2140.4780.1080.1740.605
23−1.77 (0.36)32.32 (3.58)0.7400.7480.3580.2310.5110.1220.2010.625
24−1.69 (0.36)33.07 (3.58)0.7570.7720.4060.2530.5480.1390.2360.647
25−1.62 (0.36)33.83 (3.59)0.7700.7910.4500.2720.5810.1570.2690.667
26−1.54 (0.36)34.60 (3.60)0.7850.8120.5010.2960.6170.1780.3110.688
27−1.46 (0.36)35.38 (3.61)0.8000.8310.5520.3200.6510.2020.3550.708
28−1.38 (0.36)36.17 (3.62)0.8130.8490.6010.3460.6850.2290.4030.728
29−1.30 (0.36)36.98 (3.64)0.8260.8650.6490.3730.7160.2570.4530.747
30−1.22 (0.37)37.80 (3.66)0.8380.8790.6940.4000.7460.2880.5030.765
31−1.14 (0.37)38.64 (3.68)0.8500.8920.7360.4280.7730.3210.5530.782
32−1.05 (0.37)39.50 (3.71)0.8620.9060.7780.4600.8010.3610.6090.800
33−0.96 (0.37)40.39 (3.74)0.8730.9170.8150.4930.8270.4020.6610.817
34−0.87 (0.38)41.30 (3.78)0.8840.9280.8470.5250.8500.4450.7100.832
35−0.78 (0.38)42.25 (3.82)0.8930.9370.8750.5580.8700.4880.7550.847
36−0.68 (0.39)43.23 (3.87)0.9030.9460.9000.5930.8900.5370.7990.862
37−0.57 (0.39)44.26 (3.92)0.9130.9550.9230.6310.9080.5900.8400.877
38−0.47 (0.40)45.33 (3.99)0.9220.9610.9390.6640.9230.6360.8710.890
39−0.35 (0.41)46.48 (4.07)0.9310.9680.9540.7010.9380.6880.9010.903
40−0.23 (0.42)47.69 (4.16)0.9390.9730.9660.7360.9490.7360.9250.915
41−0.10 (0.43)48.99 (4.27)0.9460.9780.9750.7710.9600.7820.9450.927
420.04 (0.44)50.38 (4.37)0.9530.9830.9830.8050.9690.8250.9610.937
430.19 (0.44)51.89 (4.42)0.9600.9860.9880.8370.9760.8630.9730.947
440.36 (0.45)53.61 (4.52)0.9670.9900.9920.8680.9830.8980.9820.957
450.56 (0.46)55.58 (4.62)0.9730.9930.9950.8970.9880.9290.9890.966
460.80 (0.47)58.03 (4.73)0.9790.9950.9970.9250.9920.9540.9940.974
471.15 (0.52)61.47 (5.21)0.9860.9970.9990.9540.9960.9760.9980.983
481.62 (0.61)66.22 (6.07)0.9910.9991.0000.9760.9980.9900.9990.990
  1. The burnout symptom burden represented by subscale scores in this table can be interpreted based on the profile of likely item endorsements (i.e., a content-referenced score interpretation) as well as how far above or below the scores are relative to the mean score in a 2014 reference population of US physicians (i.e., a norm-referenced score interpretation). a A raw score on each subscale refers to the total (or sum) score on each subscale. Bolded rows correspond to IRT scores and response profiles that are at or closest to the mean for each subscale. b Items EE4 and EE8 were combined into one item (EE4EE8) to meet local independence assumptions. The probabilities shown for the combined EE4EE8 item represent the probability of a physician endorsing that working with people puts too much stress on him/her and/or is a real strain at a frequency of once a week or more at a particular score (i.e., a score of at least 8 on the combined EE4EE8 item). Higher scores on the EE subscale indicate more emotional exhaustion (and a higher burnout symptom burden). An EE item with > 0.50 probability of endorsement indicates a physician is likely to endorse feeling that particular EE symptom at a frequency of once a week or more at a particular score. c Higher scores on the DP subscale indicate more depersonalization (and a higher burnout symptom burden). A DP item with > 0.50 probability of endorsement indicates a physician is likely to endorse feeling that particular DP symptom at a frequency of once a week or more at a particular score. d Higher scores on the PA subscale indicate more personal accomplishment (and a lower symptom burden); whereas, lower scores on the PA subscale indicate a lower sense of personal accomplishment (and higher burnout symptom burden). A PA item with < 0.50 probability of endorsement indicates a physician is unlikely to endorse feeling that particular PA indicator at a frequency of once a week or more at a particular score
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