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Table 2 Item Parameter Estimates and Standard Errors (SE) for Calibrated Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization (DP), and Personal Accomplishment (PA) IRT Models a

From: Describing the emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment symptoms associated with Maslach Burnout Inventory subscale scores in US physicians: an item response theory analysis

  Item Discrimination EstimatesItem Threshold Estimates and SEs 
IRT Model (n)Itemaj (se)\( {b}_{1_j} \) (se)\( {b}_{2_j} \) (se)\( {b}_{3_j} \) (se)\( {b}_{4_j} \) (se)\( {b}_{5_j} \) (se)\( {b}_{6_j} \) (se)Item Symptom Severity b
EEc
(n = 6264)
EE1: emotionally drained4.32 (.09)−1.84 (0.03)− 1.02 (0.02)−0.60 (0.02)− 0.07 (0.02)0.29 (0.02)1.19 (0.02)−0.34
EE2: used up3.92 (.08)−1.83 (0.03)−1.17 (0.02)−0.75 (0.02)− 0.26 (0.02)0.09 (0.02)0.98 (0.02)−0.49
EE3: fatigued3.14 (.06)−1.33 (0.03)−0.70 (0.02)−0.27 (0.02)0.20 (0.02)0.57 (0.02)1.39 (0.03)−0.02
EE5: burned out4.36 (.09)−1.18 (0.02)−0.44 (0.02)−0.10 (0.02)0.27 (0.02)0.60 (0.02)1.23 (0.02)0.07
EE6: frustrated2.73 (.05)−1.98 (0.04)−1.09 (0.02)−0.67 (0.02)−0.18 (0.02)0.20 (0.02)1.02 (0.02)−0.45
EE7: working too hard2.44 (.05)−1.71 (0.03)−1.08 (0.02)−0.66 (0.02)−0.18 (0.02)0.18 (0.02)0.97 (0.02)−0.41
EE9: end of rope2.43 (.05)−0.41 (0.02)0.31 (0.02)0.65 (0.02)1.00 (0.02)1.34 (0.03)2.06 (0.04)0.83
DP
(n = 6403)
DP1: treat patients as objects1.76 (.05)−0.02 (0.02)0.73 (0.02)1.18 (0.03)1.64 (0.04)2.08 (0.05)3.31 (0.09)1.49
DP2: more callous3.98 (.13)−0.52 (0.02)0.19 (0.02)0.54 (0.02)0.92 (0.02)1.26 (0.02)2.03 (0.04)0.74
DP3: job hardening me2.67 (.06)−0.55 (0.02)0.12 (0.02)0.46 (0.02)0.78 (0.02)1.11 (0.02)1.64 (0.03)0.59
DP4: don’t care1.56 (.05)0.49 (0.02)1.32 (0.04)1.83 (0.05)2.27 (0.06)2.71 (0.07)3.62 (0.11)2.04
DP5: patients blame me1.07 (.03)−1.70 (0.05)−0.21 (0.03)0.44 (0.03)1.07 (0.04)1.69 (0.05)2.98 (0.09)0.71
PA
(n = 6201)
PA1: easily understand patients1.09 (.04)−4.95 (0.20)−4.22 (0.15)−3.66 (0.13)−2.73 (0.09)−2.15 (0.07)−0.80 (0.04)−3.08
PA2: deal effectively with patient problems1.63 (.05)−3.49 (0.11)−3.16 (0.09)− 2.91 (0.08)− 2.44 (0.06)−1.98 (0.05)−0.79 (0.03)− 2.46
PA3: positively influencing others2.55 (.07)−2.97 (0.08)−2.46 (0.05)− 2.08 (0.04)−1.54 (0.03)−1.14 (0.03)−0.24 (0.02)− 1.74
PA4: feel energetic1.45 (.04)−3.09 (0.08)−2.49 (0.06)−1.80 (0.04)−0.94 (0.03)−0.38 (0.02)1.25 (0.04)−1.24
PA5: can create relaxed atmosphere1.88 (.05)−2.91 (0.08)−2.54 (0.06)− 2.26 (0.05)−1.79 (0.04)−1.43 (0.03)−0.40 (0.02)− 1.89
PA6: exhilarated1.95 (.05)−2.54 (0.06)−1.89 (0.04)−1.40 (0.03)−0.76 (0.02)−0.29 (0.02)0.93 (0.03)−0.99
PA7: accomplished many things2.53 (.07)−3.13 (0.09)−2.28 (0.05)−1.77 (0.04)−1.22 (0.03)−0.79 (0.02)0.19 (0.02)−1.50
PA8: deal with problems calmly1.21 (.04)−4.88 (0.19)−3.83 (0.13)−3.05 (0.09)−2.19 (0.06)−1.54 (0.05)−0.10 (0.03)−2.60
  1. aHigher scores on each scale indicate more of each construct; higher scores on the EE and DP scales indicate more burnout symptoms; lower scores on the PA scale indicate more burnout symptoms. “ aj ” parameter for the EE, DP, and PA IRT models = item discrimination parameter estimate, which indicates the degree to which an item discriminates between physicians with high versus low underlying EE, DP, or PA levels. Higher discrimination estimates indicate that the item is more discriminating compared to items with lower discrimination estimates. Item threshold estimates (\( {\mathrm{b}}_{1_{\mathrm{j}}} \) to \( {\mathrm{b}}_{6_{\mathrm{j}}} \)) indicate the IRT score at which a randomly selected physician among those with that score would have a 50% chance of endorsing the particular response category or a higher response category. For items in each model: “ \( {\mathrm{b}}_{1_{\mathrm{j}}} \) ” = threshold parameter for endorsing “few times a year or less” or more; “ \( {\mathrm{b}}_{2_{\mathrm{j}}} \) ” = threshold parameter estimate for endorsing “once a month or less” or more; “ \( {\mathrm{b}}_{3_{\mathrm{j}}} \) ” = threshold parameter estimate for endorsing “a few times a month” or more; “ \( {\mathrm{b}}_{4_{\mathrm{j}}} \) ” = threshold parameter estimate for endorsing “once a week” or more; “ \( {\mathrm{b}}_{5_{\mathrm{j}}} \) ” = threshold parameter estimate for endorsing “a few times a week” or more; “ \( {\mathrm{b}}_{6_{\mathrm{j}}} \) ” = threshold parameter estimate for endorsing “every day”. b Item symptom severity is the mean of item threshold parameter estimates (i.e., item difficulty). On the EE and DP subscales, items with lower item symptom severity values indicate that an item is easier to endorse and represents less severe burnout symptoms; higher item symptom severity values indicate that the item is harder to endorse and represents more severe burnout symptoms. On the PA subscale, items with lower symptom severity values indicate an item is harder to endorse and represents more severe burnout symptoms; items with higher symptom severity values indicate the item is easier to endorse and represents less severe burnout symptoms. c Item parameter estimates and associated SEs for the combined EE4EE8 item included in the EE IRT model are: a = 1.52 (.03); \( {\mathrm{b}}_{1_{\mathrm{j}}} \) = − 1.23 (.03), \( {\mathrm{b}}_{2_{\mathrm{j}}} \) = − 0.68 (.03), \( {\mathrm{b}}_{3_{\mathrm{j}}} \) = − 0.13 (.02), \( {\mathrm{b}}_{4_{\mathrm{j}}} \) = 0.28 (.02), \( {\mathrm{b}}_{5_{\mathrm{j}}} \) = 0.63 (.03), \( {\mathrm{b}}_{6_{\mathrm{j}}} \) = 0.96 (.03), \( {\mathrm{b}}_{7_{\mathrm{j}}} \) = 1.31 (.03), \( {\mathrm{b}}_{8_{\mathrm{j}}} \) = 1.57 (.04), \( {\mathrm{b}}_{9_{\mathrm{j}}} \) = 1.90 (.05), \( {\mathrm{b}}_{10_{\mathrm{j}}} \) = 2.23 (.05), \( {\mathrm{b}}_{11_{\mathrm{j}}} \) = 2.76 (.07), \( {\mathrm{b}}_{12_{\mathrm{j}}} \) = 3.35 (.09). Item symptom severity for EE4EE8 = 1.08
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