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Table 2 Illness perception mean scores (standard deviation) by functional capacity (N = 208)

From: Perception of illness among patients with heart failure is related to their general health independently of their mood and functional capacity

Illness perceptions, Mean (SD) NYHA
Class I
(n = 18)
NYHA
Class II
(n = 99)
NYHA
Class III
(n = 91)
Pairwise
p-values
Consequences
How much does your illness affect your life?
3.67 (2.3) 5.43 (2.4) 6.49 (2.2) 1 vs 2: p = .01
1 vs 3: p < .001
2 vs 3: p = .01
Timeline
How long do you think your illness will continue?
8.56 (1.9) 8.93 (2.1) 9.34 (1.6) 1 vs 2: p = .84
1 vs 2: p = .84
2 vs 3: p = .33
Personal control
How much control do you feel you have over your illness?
7.39 (1.7) 5.96 (2.2) 5.71 (2.3) 1 vs 2: p = .03
1 vs 3: p = .01
2 vs 3: p > .99
Treatment control
How much do you think your treatment can help your illness?
8.94 (1.1) 7.91 (1.8) 7.57 (2.3) 1 vs 2: p = .01
1 vs 3: p = .001
2 vs 3: p = .60
Identity
How much do you experience symptoms from your illness?
2.72 (2.2) 5.01 (2.5) 6.45 (2.3) 1 vs 2: p = .001
1 vs 3: p < .001
2 vs 3: p < .001
Illness concern
How concerned are you about your illness?
2.78 (2.1) 3.82 (2.8) 4.80 (3.3) 1 vs 2: p = .53
1 vs 3: p = .03
2 vs 3: p = .07
Coherence
How well do you feel you understand your illness?
6.50 (2.3) 7.01 (2.0) 7.21 (2.3) 1 vs 2: p > .99
1 vs 3: p = .64
2 vs 3: p > .99
Emotional representation
How much does your illness affect you emotionally?
2.33 (1.8) 4.56 (3.1) 5.09 (2.8) 1 vs 2: p = .01
1 vs 3: p = .001
2 vs 3: p = .62
  1. Note: Anova tests were used for all comparisons. Where the Levene test indicated homogeneity of variance could be assumed, Bonferroni’s adjustment for multiple comparisons was applied; where homogeneity of variance could not be assumed, Tamhane’s T2 adjustment was applied. Bold p-values are < .05
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