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Table 1 Demographic, clinical characteristics, self-reported general health and illness perceptions by sex

From: Perception of illness among patients with heart failure is related to their general health independently of their mood and functional capacity

Characteristics Total sample
N = 220
Male
n = 156
Female
n = 64
P-value
Age, mean (SD) 67.5 (12.5) 66.6 (12.2) 69.8 (13.1) .08
Education level, N (%) N = 215 n = 152 n = 63 .56
 < High school 71 (33.0) 48 (31.6) 23 (36.5)  
 High school 82 (38.1) 57 (37.5) 25 (39.7)  
 ≥ University 62 (28.8) 47 (30.9) 15 (23.8)  
Work status, N (%) N = 216 n = 152 n = 64 .46
 Working 33 (15.3) 25 (16.3) 8 (12.7)  
 Not working 183 (84.7) 128 (83.7) 55 (87.3)  
Functional capacity, N (%) N = 208 n = 146 n = 62 .006
 NYHA Class I 18 (8.7) 16 (11.0) 2 (3.2)  
 NYHA Class II 99 (47.6) 76 (52.1) 23 (37.1)  
 NYHA Class III 91 (43.8) 54 (37.0) 37 (59.7)  
HADS Anxiety, mean (SD) 4.7 (4.0) 4.3 (3.3) 5.7 (3.8) .019
HADS Anxiety, N (%) N = 219 n = 156 n = 63 .12a
 Normal 0–7 168 (76.7) 125 (80.1) 43 (68.3)  
 Borderline 8–10 35 (16.0) 20 (12.8) 15 (23.8)  
 Case of morbidity ≥11 16 (7.3) 11 (7.1) 5 (7.9)  
HADS Depression, mean (SD) 4.8 (3.5) 4.8 (3.7) 5.0 (3.3) .79
HADS Depression, N (%) N = 220 n = 156 n = 64 .94
 Normal 0–7 177 (80.5) 126 (80.8) 51 (79.7)  
 Borderline 8–10 25 (11.4) 17 (10.9) 8 (12.5)  
 Case of morbidity ≥11 18 (8.2) 13 (8.3) 5 (7.8)  
Self-reported general health N = 213 n = 150 n = 63  
 EQ-VAS, mean (SD) 53.81 (20.96) 54.15 (21.51) 52.98 (1.77) .72
Illness perceptions, mean (SD) N = 220 n = 156 n = 64  
 Consequences 5.77 (2.5) 5.69 (2.5) 5.95 (2.5) .49
 Timeline 9.07 (1.9) 8.98 (1.9) 9.29 (1.9) .28
 Personal control 5.94 (2.3) 5.79 (2.3) 6.30 (2.1) .14
 Treatment control 7.84 (2.1) 7.77 (2.1) 8.02 (1.9) .42
 Identity 5.45 (2.7) 5.15 (2.7) 6.17 (2.5) .01
 Illness concern 4.26 (3.1) 4.03 (3.1) 4.83 (3.0) .08
 Coherence 7.11 (2.2) 7.26 (2.1) 6.77 (2.5) .17
 Emotional representation 4.62 (3.0) 4.35 (3.1) 5.30 (2.8) .03
  1. aFishers exact test due to expected count less than 5. Note. Bold p-values are < .05