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Table 1 Phrasing and trichotomization of variables translated into English

From: Measurement of alienation among adolescents: construct validity of three scales on powerlessness, meaninglessness and social isolation

Alienation variant Variable name Phrasing Response categories
    High Medium Low
Powerlessness Cannot overcome problemsa If you try hard enough, how often do you know what to do to overcome a problem? ‘Never’ and ‘Rarely’ (know what to do) ‘Sometimes’ ‘Often’ and ‘Always’
Cannot manage thingsa How often can you manage things you set out to do? ‘Never’ and ‘Rarely’ (able to manage things) ‘Sometimes’ ‘Often’ and ‘Always’
Feeling helplessa How often do you feel helpless? ‘Always’ and ‘Often’ ‘Sometimes’ ‘Rarely’ and ‘Never’
Meaninglessness Things have no meaninga How often do you feel there is little meaning in the things you do in your daily life? ’Very often’ and ‘Often’ ‘Sometimes’ ‘Seldom’ and ‘Never’
Not knowing what is going ona How often do you feel you don’t really know what is happening? ’Very often’ and ‘Often’ ‘Sometimes’ ‘Seldom’ and ‘Never’
School is not preparing me for the futureb School prepares me for what I want to do when I leave. ‘Strongly disagree’ and ‘Disagree’ (that school prepares me) ’Neither agree nor disagree’ ’Agree’ and ‘Strongly agree’
Social isolation Feeling left outa How often do you feel left out of things? ‘Always’ and ‘Often’ ‘Sometimes’ ‘Rarely’ and ‘Never’
Not feeling close to familyb Do you feel close to your family? ‘Never’ and ‘Rarely’ ‘Sometimes’ ‘Always’ and ‘Often’
No support when unhappyb Are there people you can turn to for support when you are unhappy? ‘Never’ and ‘Rarely’ ‘Sometimes’ ‘Often’ and ‘Always’
Feeling lonelya Do you ever feel lonely? ‘Yes, very often’ and ‘Yes, often’ ’Yes, sometimes’ ’No′
Not belongingb I feel I belong to several different groups of friends. ‘Strongly disagree’ and ‘Disagree’ ’Neither agree nor disagree’ ’Agree’ and ‘Strongly agree’,
  1. aPrevious or adapted from previous HBSC questionnaires [30]
  2. bInspired by Mau [23]