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Table 1 Basic characteristics of the included studies

From: There are more things in physical function and pain: a systematic review on physical, mental and social health within the orthopedic fracture population using PROMIS

References Study design Patient population Sample size Female percentage Mean age in years (SD) Mean follow-up (SD) PROMIS scores in T scores, mean (SD) Type of PROMIS form Level of trauma center
Anthony et al. [43] Randomized controlled trial Traumatic upper or lower extremity fracture (Ankle fracture, calcaneus fracture, clavicle fracture, distal femur fracture, distal humerus fracture, elbow fracture, femoral shaft fracture, femoral neck fracture, intertrochanteric hip fracture, navicular fracture, patella fracture, polytrauma, proximal humerus fracture, sub trochanteric fracture, tibia plateau fracture, tibia plafond fracture) 82 50% (n = 41) Acceptance and commitment therapy group 45.5 (15.9), Control group 48.7 (14.6) NA Acceptance and commitment therapy group, preoperative results: PROMIS Pain Intensity 1A Score 5.4 (2.9), PROMIS Pain Intensity 3A Score, 54.9 (7.3), PROMIS Pain Interference 8A score, 63.6 (11.4), PROMIS Emotional Distress-Anxiety 8A Score, 56.5 (11.4)
Postoperative results: PROMIS Pain Intensity 1A Score, 3.4 (2.2), PROMIS Pain Intensity 3A Score, 45.9 (7.2) PROMIS Pain Interference 8A score, 56.6 (9.4) PROMIS Emotional Distress-Anxiety 8A, 51.5 (10.4)
Control group, Preoperative results: PROMIS Pain Intensity 1A Score, 6.2 (2.6), PROMIS Pain Intensity 3A Score, 57.1 (8.2), PROMIS Pain Interference 8A score, 66.1 (8.4), PROMIS Emotional Distress-Anxiety 8A Score, 56.5 (9.2). Postoperative results: PROMIS Pain Intensity 1A Score, 4.1 (2.4), PROMIS Pain Intensity 3A Score, 49.7 (8.8), PROMIS Pain Interference 8A, 60.6 (8.2), PROMIS Emotional Distress-Anxiety 8A 52.3 (10.6)
PROMIS PI 1A Short form, PROMIS Pain Intensity 3A Short form, PROMIS PI 8A Short form, and PROMIS Emotional Distress-Anxiety 8A Short form Level I
Bakhsh et al. [44] Observational, retrospective cohort study Unstable ankle fracture 209 NA 45 (range 16–84 years) NA PROMIS mood, under/uninsured 54, fully insured 49.1. PROMIS PF, under/ uninsured 38, fully insured 44.7. PROMIS PI, under/ uninsured 59.6, fully insured 55.5 PROMIS PF, PROMIS PI, PROMIS Mood Level I
Bhashyam et al. [45] Observational, retrospective study Nonunion of the distal humerus after humerus fracture 7 42.9% (n = 3) 53.3 (range 41–75 years) 22 years (SD 3, range 19–27) PROMIS PI 49.2 ± 9.1 (range 41.6–66.6), PROMIS Depression 49.7 ± 9.5 (range 41–63.6), PROMIS PF UE 41.8 ± 14.9 (range 19.3–58.2) PROMIS PI, PROMIS Depression, PROMIS PF UE NA
Bhashyam et al. [20] Randomized controlled trial Distal humerus fracture 76 67.1% (n = 51) 58 (range 22–94 years) 10.3 months (7.1) PROMIS PF 41.7 ± 11.1, PROMIS PF UE 40.8 ± 12.4, PROMIS global (physical) 44.7 ± 11.6, PROMIS global (mental) 52.2 ± 10.4 PROMIS PF 10a, PROMIS PF UE 16a and PROMIS Global physical and Mental Health Level I
Bozzio et al. [46] Observational, retrospective cohort study Acetabular fracture treated with closed reduction and percutaneous fixation 19 26.3% (n = 5) 47.5 (range 14–72 years) 18.7 months (range 15–29) PROMIS PF mobility 66.4 PROMIS PF mobility Level I
Carney et al. [47] Observational, retrospective cohort study Supination-adduction type II (AO/OTA 44A2.3) ankle fracture
Observational, retrospective cohort study
65 46.1% (n = 30) 37 (14) 20.5 weeks (range 0.4–60.9) PROMIS Physical Function 42.3 ± 11.3, PROMIS Pain Interference 55.8 ± 7.8 PROMIS PF and PROMIS PI Level I, a private, academic tertiary referral center
Cavallero et al. [33] Observational, retrospective cohort study Bicondylar tibial plateau (BTP) fracture, complete articular, BTP fractures (AO/OTA 41- C and Schatzker 6) 46 47.8% (n = 22) Locking group 51, Non-locking group 49 24.3 months (12–41) Locking group, PROMIS PF 39, Non-locking group, PROMIS PF 41. Locking group, PROMIS PI 60, Non-locking group, PROMIS PI 57 PROMIS PF and PROMIS PI Level I
Dean et al. [22] Observational, retrospective cohort study Closed ankle fracture 142 45.1% (n = 64) 52.7 (SD 14.7) 6.3 years (range 2–14) PROMIS PF 51.9 (10.0), PROMIS PI 47.8 (8.45) PROMIS PF and PROMIS PI Level I
Eguia et al. [48] Observational, retrospective cohort study Supracondylar Humerus Fracture treated with lateral pinning or with crossed pinning 142 51% (n = 71) 5.2 (SD 2.0) 4.4 years (range 2–10) Crossed pinning PROMIS PF UE 57 ± 6.2, PROMIS Pain interference 12 ± 0, PROMIS Strength impact 54 ± 1.6
Lateral Pinning (N = 93), PROMIS PF UE 56 ± 7.2, Pain interference 12 ± 3.2, Strength impact 53 ± 4.0
PROMIS Parent Proxy questionnaires: PROMIS PF UE CAT, PROMIS PI CAT and PROMIS Strength Impact short form A Academic medical center
Eguia et al. [35] Observational, retrospective cohort study Supracondylar humerus fracture 213 49% (n = 104) 5.1 (SD 2.1) 5.0 (SD 2.1, range 2.0–10) PROMIS PF UE 57 ± 5.5, 12 ± 2.1 for Pain Interference, PROMIS Strength Impact 54 ± 2.6 PROMIS Strength Impact, PROMIS PF UE and PROMIS PI Tertiary care hospital
Evans et al. [49] Observational, retrospective comparative study Upper extremity fracture (wrist/hand, humerus, forearm, other) 297 32.3% (n = 96) Least deprived quartile 12 (SD 2), most deprived quartile 12 (SD 3) NA NA PROMIS Pediatric: PROMIS PF UE CAT, PROMIS PI CAT and PROMIS Peer Relationships CAT Tertiary academic medical center
Fuchs et al. [50] Observational, retrospective cohort study Unstable ankle fracture 51 39.2 (n = 20) Arthroscopy group 38.3, Non-arthroscopy group 40.3 67 months PROMIS PF arthroscopy group 57.8, PROMIS PF non-arthroscopy group 54.5
PROMIS PI arthroscopy group 45.6, PROMIS PI non arthroscopy group 46.9
PROMIS PF CAT and PROMIS PI CAT NA
Gausden et al. [21] Observational, prospective cohort study Unstable ankle fracture 132 59.8% (n = 79) 46.7 (SD 17.9) NA NA PROMIS PF CAT and PROMIS LE PF CAT NA
Gausden et al. [51] Observational, prospective cohort study Upper extremity fracture (olecranon, coronoid, radial head, and distal humeral fractures, humeral shaft, proximal humeral, or clavicular fracture) 174 58.6% (n = 102) 53.0 (range 15–90 years) 5.2 months (range, 1.3–16.7) NA PROMIS PF, PROMIS PI and PROMIS PF UE NA
Gerull et al. [52] Observational, cross-sectional study Upper extremity fracture (humeral shaft, distal humerus, proximal forearm, distal forearm, unspecified, wrist/hand, forearm) 964 46.2% (n = 446) NA NA PROMIS Upper extremity Parent proxy 30 (10, range 14–56, PROMIS Mobility Parent proxy Mean 45 (9, range 22–60), PROMIS Peer relationship Parent proxy 50 (10, range 15–66), PROMIS Pain interference Parent proxy Mean 54 (8, range 22–78). PROMIS PF UE self-administered 33 (11, range 14–57), PROMIS PF Mobility self-administered 44.9 (9, range 23–62), PROMIS Peer relationship self-administered 52.5 (10, range 17–66), PROMIS PI self-administered 48.7 (8, range 32–74) PROMIS Parent Proxy questionnaires: PROMIS PF UE, PF Mobility, PROMIS PI and PROMIS Peer Relationships. PROMIS Pediatric: PROMIS PF UE, PF Mobility, PROMIS PI and PROMIS Peer Relationships Tertiary orthopedic center
Gilley et al. [53] Observational, prospective comparative study Unstable ankle fracture 126 84.0% (n = 60) 45 (SD 14.0) NA PROMIS results mean (SD) [range]: isolated lateral malleolar (PF: 50 (11.4) [15.4–73.3]/PI: 51 (10.9) [38.7–83.8]), isolated medial malleolar (PF: 52 (8.2) [44.2–73.3]/ PI: 49 (8.4) [38.6–61.5]), bi-malleolar (PF: 47 (11.8) [26.3–73.3]/PI: 50 (11.5) [38.7–70.3]), tri-malleolar (PF: 48 (9.4) [24.1–73.3]/PI: 51 (8.3) [38.6–70.2]), isolated posterior malleolar (PF: 53 (7.7) [47.0–68.8]/PI: 44 (6.7) [38.7–56.0]), and isolated syndesmotic injury (PF: 60 (9.8) [49.8–73.3]/PI: 46 (7.5) [38.7–54.6]) PROMIS PF and PROMIS PI NA
Glogovac et al. [54] Observational, retrospective cohort study Distal ulnar head and neck fracture 58 NA 56 (range 21–89 years) 27 months (range, 6–92 months) distal ulna resection group PROMIS PF UE 34, non-operative group PROMIS PF UE 38, ORIF group PROMIS PF UE 45 PROMIS PF UE Academic institution
Jayakumar et al. [36] Observational, prospective longitudinal cohort study Isolated distal radial fracture 364 78% (n = 284) 61 (SD 20, (range 18–99 years) NA < 1 Week After Injury†: PROMIS PF UE 21.2 (19.3–25.7), PROMIS PI 69.6 (63.1–73), PROMIS Depression 54.1 (46.1–58.6), PROMIS Anxiety 57 (44.3–58.1), PROMIS ES NM, PROMIS IS NM
2–4 Weeks After Injury†: PROMIS UE 27.2 (23.9–30.9), PROMIS PI 65.6 (62.6–68.1), PROMIS Depression 46.1 (39.4–58.6), PROMIS Anxiety 42.7 (32.9–62.1), PROMIS ES 56.2 (39.6–58.8), PROMIS IS 57.6 (45.3 -59.2). 6–9 Months After Injury†: PROMIS PF UE 43.9 (35–56.4), PROMIS PI: NM, PROMIS Depression NM, PROMIS Anxiety NM, PROMIS ES NM, PROMIS IS NM
PROMIS PF UE CAT, PROMIS Depression CAT, PROMIS Anxiety CAT, PROMIS PI CAT, PROMIS ES, PROMIS IS Level I
Jayakumar et al. [55] Observational, prospective longitudinal cohort study Isolated proximal humerus, elbow, or distal radial fracture 744 66.9% (n = 498) 58.5 (SD 20.4, range, 18–97 years) NA < 1 Wk. After Fracture: PROMIS UE: 24.2 ± 6.2, Range 14.7–56.4, PROMIS PF: 32.4 ± 6.1, Range 23.5–55.8
2–4 Wk. After Fracture: PROMIS 29.2 ± 5.9, Range 15.6–45.7, PROMIS PF: 36.4 ± 8.4, Range 23.5–51.4
6–9 Months After Fracture: UE 43.2 ± 10.7, Range 19.5–56.4, PROMIS PF: 51.7 ± 12.8, Range 23.5–73.3
PROMIS PF and PROMIS PF UE Level I
Jayakumar et al. [56] Observational, prospective institutional review Isolated proximal humerus, elbow, and distal radius fractures 744 66.9% (n = 498) 59 (SD 20) NA PROMIS PF: < 1 week after injury, 32 ± 6, At 2–4 weeks after injury 36 ± 8, At 6–9 months after injury 52 ± 13. PROMIS UE PF: < than 1 week after injury, number 744, Mean (SD) 24 ± 6, At 2–4 weeks after injury 29 ± 6, At 6–9 months after injury 43 ± 11 PROMIS PF and PROMIS PF UE Level I
Jayakumar et al. [37] Observational, prospective longitudinal cohort study Isolated elbow fracture 183 49.7% (n = 91) 48.2 (SD 20.2; range, 18–93 years) NA PROMIS UE PF: < 1 week after injury 30.1 ± 6.4, Range 15.7–56.4, Value at 2–4 weeks after injury 34.3 ± 6, Range 21–45.7, Value at 6–9 months after injury 46.5 ± 10.1, Range 22.5–56.4
PROMIS PI: < 1 week after injury 63.6 ± 7.3, Range (36.3–78.9), Value at 2–4 weeks after injury 57 ± 11.9, Range 0–71.6, Value at 6–9 months after injury 47.8 + 10.7, Range 34.8–74.1
PROMIS Depression: < than 1 week after injury 51.9 ± 13.2, Range (34.2–76.4), Value at 2–4 weeks after injury 47.6 ± 12.7, Range 34.2–76.3, Value at 6–9 months after injury 41.9 ± 10.8, Range 34.2–66.7
PROMIS Anxiety: < 1 week after injury 49.1 ± 9.2, Range 32.9–69.1, Value at 2–4 weeks after injury 44.9 ± 10.8, Range 32.9–69.4, Value at 6–9 months after injury 40.8 ± 11.3, Range 32.7–67.1
PROMIS ES: < 1 week after injury NM, Range NM. Value at 2–4 weeks after injury 54.7 ± 9.3, Range 31.5–66.9, Value at 6–9 months after injury 54.2 ± 9, Range 33.6–66.2
PROMIS IS: < 1 week after injury: NM, Range NM, Value at 2–4 weeks after injury 54.8 + 7.4, Range 35.1–66.1, Value at 6–9 months after injury 54.7 ± 6.6, Range 41.2–62.1
PROMIS PF UE, PROMIS PI, PROMIS Depression, PROMIS Anxiety, PROMIS ES and PROMIS IS Level I
Jayakumar et al. [38] Observational, prospective cohort study Isolated fracture of the proximal humerus, elbow, or distal radius 744 66.9% (n = 798) 58.5 (SD 20.4; 18–97 years) NA NA PROMIS PI, PROMIS Depression, PROMIS Anxiety, PROMIS ES and PROMIS IS Level I
Jayakumar et al. [39] Observational, prospective longitudinal cohort study Proximal humeral fracture 177 72.3% (n = 128) 66 (SD 16; 18- 95 years) NA PROMIS UE PF CAT: Value at < 1 wk. after injury, 21.9 (5.5; 14.7–40.7), Value at 2–4 wks. after injury, 27.1 (5.4; 15.6–41), Value at 6–9 mths after injury, 40.5 (9.9; 26.2–56.4). PROMIS PI: Value at < 1 wk. after injury, 68 (6.8; 38.1–76.9), Value at 2–4 wks. after injury, 66.9 (5.9; 46.1–74.1), Value at 6–9 mths after injury, 52.8 (11.2; 38.7–70.3). PROMIS Depression: Value at < 1 wk. after injury, 50.7 (9.5; 34.2–75.6), Value at 2–4 wks. after injury, 50.2 (9.6; 34.2–69.2), Value at 6–9 mths after injury, 45.1 (11.5; 34.2–68). PROMIS Anxiety: Value at < 1 wk. after injury, 52.2 (11.6; 32.9–76.2), Value at 2–4 wks. after injury, 47 (10.4; 32.9–69.6), Value at 6–9 mths after injury, 44.2 (11.2; 32.9–63.3). PROMIS ES: Value at < 1 wk. after injury, NM, Value at 2–4 wks. after injury, 51.6 (12.1; 32.6–66.2), Value at 6–9 mths after injury, 51.3 (11.4; 31.5–66.2). PROMIS IS: Value at < 1 wk. after injury, NM, Value at 2–4 wks. after injury, 55 (9.5; 38.8–66.2), Value at 6–9 mths after injury, 53.5 (9.1; 38.8–66.2 PROMIS PF UE, PROMIS PI, PROMIS Depression, PROMIS Anxiety, PROMIS ES and PROMIS IS Level I
Kaat et al. [57] Observational, prospective cross-sectional and longitudinal study Complete intra-articular distal humeral fracture 424 53,9% (n = 228) 47,3 (SD 17,4) NA PROMIS UE-CAT, overall, Time 1: 32.8 (SD 9,5), Time 2: 42.5 (SD 8.6). PROMIS PF-SF8a, Overall, Time 1: 41.6 (SD 6.9), Time 2: N 131, 48.9 (SD 7.5) PROMIS PF UE CAT and PROMIS PF short form 8a Level I
Kaiser et al. [58] Observational, retrospective cohort study Isolated distal radial fracture 56 71.4% (n = 40) ORIF with olecranon osteotomy 76.9 (range 65–92). Limited fixation 79.8 (range 65–96) 15.2 months (range 12–97 months) PROMIS PI: ORIF with osteotomy, 53.1. Limited fixation group 52.14. PROMIS PF: ORIF with osteotomy, 41.7. Limited fixation group 41.1 PROMIS PF and PROMIS PI Orthopedic trauma center
Kempton et al. [59] Observational, prospective cohort study Surgically treated tibia plateau fracture 183 na Group 1: 50.0, Group 2: 50.3 group 1: 31 months, group 2: 15 months PROMIS PF: Group 1, 41.2. Group 2, 42.8
PROMIS PI: Group 1, 55.9. Group 2, 55.6
PROMIS PF and PROMIS PI Level I
Kohring et al. [60] Observational, prospective cohort study Ankle fracture ORIF and syndesmotic fixation 71 na SSR group at initial ORIF: 43 (SD 17). cohort comparison group: 44 (SD 18) 106 days (SD 44) PROMIS PF: after ORIF before SSR 35.2 (SD 8.0, range 19.3–61.7). PROMIS PI: pre-screw removal 56.5 (SD 9.6, range 32.2–73.7). PROMIS depression: 46.2 (SD 9.6, range 31.9–65.7). PROMIS PF: post-screw removal 44.5 (SD 7.7, range 26.9–61.7). PROMIS PI: post-screw removal 54.1 (SD 9.2, range 32.2–71.6). PROMIS depression: 43.4 (SD 10.1, range 31.9–67.8) PROMIS PF, PROMIS PI and PROMIS Depression Level I
Metcalf et al. [61] Observational, retrospective cohort study Intra-articular distal tibia fracture 135 45% (n = 60) 45.3 (range 16–84) 9 months in the extra-articular group and 10 months in the intra-articular group PROMIS PI: extra articular group 55.1 (SD 7.8). Intra-articular group 59.4 (SD 9.3)
PROMIS PF: extra articular group41.9 (SD 7.6), intra-articular group 42.3 (SD 8.4)
PROMIS PF and PROMIS PI Level I
Minoughan et al. [62] Observational, prospective study fracture of the shoulder n = 7, Adhesive capsulitis (n = 13), Failed arthroplasty (n = 7), Instability (n = 23), Impingement syndrome (n = 5), Rotator cuff disease (n = 31), Other (n = 4) 90 45.6% (n = 41) 50.3 (SD 17.3, range 14–90) NA PROMIS PF UE: 34.9 (SD 9.6, range 14.7–61) PROMIS PF UE Level I
Morgan et al. [63] Observational, prospective study Proximal humeral fractures 47 61.7% (n = 29) 68.0 (range 60–88) NA PROMIS PF CAT 44.4 PROMIS PF CAT Level I
North et al. [64] Case series Ankle fracture 3 66.7% (n = 2) 39 (range 22–48) NA PROMIS PF scores at 2 wk. appointment: pt. 1: 33.27, pt. 2: 72.82, pt. 3: 24.67. PROMIS PF at 6 wk. appointment: pt. 1: 41.35, pt. 2: 37.91, pt. 3 34.93. PROMIS PF at 12 week appointment: pt. 1: 38, pt. 2: 40.27, pt. 3: 43.0 PROMIS PF CAT Level I
Ochen et al. [65] Observational, retrospective cohort study AO/OTA 41-C or Schatzker V/ VI tibial plateau fractures 216 49.5% (n = 107) 53 (SD 13, range 24–89) 86 months from injury (IQR; 48–134)a PROMIS PF: 47.7 (SD 9.5) The PROMIS PF short-form-10 Level I
Okike et al. [66] Observational, retrospective cohort study Proximal humeral fractures 207 25.1% (n = 52) 76.9 3.3 years PROMIS PF CAT: non operative group 43.9, operative group 45.0 PROMIS PF CAT NA
Okoroafor et al. [67] Observational, cross-sectional evaluation Upper extremity fractures (humeral shaft, distal humerus, proximal forearm, distal forearm, unspecified forearm, and wrist/hand) 975 NA Quartile 1 Least Deprived: 12.2 (SD 2), Quartile 2: 12.1 (SD 3), Quartile 3: 12 (SD 3), Quartile 4 Most Deprived: 11.7 (SD 2) NA PROMIS PF UE: Quartile 1 Least Deprived: 39 (11). Quartile 2: 37 (11), Quartile 3: 36 (10), Quartile 4 Most Deprived: 35 (11). PROMIS PF Mobility CAT: Quartile 1 Least Deprived: 48 (10) Quartile 2: 47 (9) Quartile 3: 46 (9) Quartile 4 Most Deprived: 44 (9)
PROMIS PI CAT: Quartile 1 Least Deprived: 46 (8), Quartile 2: 46 (8) Quartile 3: 48 (8), Quartile 4 Most Deprived: 50 (8)
PROMIS Peer Relation CAT: Quartile 1 Least Deprived: 55 (10) Quartile 2: 53 (10) Quartile 3: 52 (9) Quartile 4 Most Deprived: 50 (9)
PROMIS Pediatric: PROMIS PF UE CAT, PROMIS PF Mobility CAT, PROMIS PI CAT and PROMIS Peer Relation CAT Tertiary orthopedic center
Ozkan et al. [68] Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial Distal radius fracture 134 73.9% (n = 99) 49 (SD 17) 6.46 months (SD 0.91 months, range, 5–9 months) PROMIS PI: total cohort 63 (SD 7.0), Vitamin C group 65 (SD 6.4) placebo group 61 (SD 7.1)
PROMIS PF UE: total cohort 27 (SD 7.7), vitamin C group 26 (SD 7.9), Placebo group 27 (SD 7.5)
PROMIS PF UE and PROMIS PI Level I
Pet et al. [40] Observational, retrospective study Proximal pole scaphoid nonunion 41 14.6% (n = 6) 24.1 (SD 5.4, range, 16–40 years) 2.9 years (SD 1.8) PROMIS PF UE: 50.1
PROMIS PF: 54.7
PROMIS Global Health: 56.1
PROMIS Pain intensity: 37.1
PROMIS PI: 46.5
PROMIS Pain behavior: 44.3
PROMIS PF UE, PROMIS PF, PROMIS Global and mental Health, PROMIS Pain Intensity, PROMIS PI and PROMIS Pain Behavior NA
Rothrock et al. [34] Observational, prospective cohort study Isolated lower extremity fracture (ankle/foot, tibia/fibula, patella, femur, pelvis) 402 44.0% (n = 177) Time 1: 45, 1, (SD 16.9). Time 2: 46.7, (SD 15.2) 80 days (range 12–364 days)a PROMIS PF Mobility CAT: 35.5 (SD 8.5), PROMIS PF SF8a 34.2 (SD 9.1) PROMIS PF Mobility CAT and PROMIS PF short Form 8a Level I
Sandvall et al. [69] Observational, retrospective cohort study Distal radius fracture 187 82.9% (n = 155) 56 (SD, 20; range, 18–94 years) 35 days (IQR, 25–45)a PROMIS Physical Function 37 (SD 10) PROMIS PF CAT NA
Shah et al. [70] Observational, retrospective cohort study High-energy and low-energy injuries 333 62.2% (n = 207) High Energy trauma 68.78 (SD 6.83), Low Energy trauma 76.17 (SD 9.29) NA PROMIS PF, High-Energy Injury: 42.16 (SD 10.41), Low-Energy Injury: 24.64 (SD 10.45) PROMIS PF Level I
Sharma et al. [41] Observational, retrospective cohort study Extra-articular scapula fracture (scapula, clavicle, and/or glenoid fracture) 5 0% (n = 0) Scapula fracture group 65.4. control group 62.4 5.6 years (range 3.2–9.2 years) PROMIS global health PF for patients 50.0, control group 57.7
PROMIS global health mental for patients 50.8, control group 67.6
PROMIS PF SF12a for patients 52.4, control group 52.4
PROMIS PF short form 12a and PROMIS Global Health PF and Mental NA
Smith et al. [42] Observational, retrospective cohort study Ankle fracture 213 54.5% (n = 116) ORIF with Arthroscopy: 39.9, ORIF Alone: 40 32.4 months PROMIS global health physical function ORIF group: 42.7, ORIF + arthroscopy group 44.9
PROMIS global health mental ORIF group: 46.2, ORIF + arthroscopy group 47.1
PROMIS Global Health Short Form and PROMIS PF NA
Stuart et al. [71] Observational, prospective cohort study Heterogeneous fracture types (Acetabulum, bi-malleolar ankle fracture, clavicle, distal humerus, distal radius, femoral neck, femoral shaft, fibula,intra-articular elbow, medial malleolus, metatarsal, patella, pelvis, posterior malleolus, proximal humerus, sub trochanteric femur, talus, tibia shaft, tibia plafond, tibia plateau, tri-malleolar ankle fracture and ulna, 50 32% (n = 16) Patient age: 42.7 (SD 16.1; range 18–71 years). Proxy age 49.8 (SD 12.8; range, 20–78 years) 14.3 days (SD 1.06; range 14–18 days) Patient’ perceived preinjury PROMIS PF CAT 57.9 (SD 10.4). Proxies’ perceived preinjury PF CAT 56.6 (SD 11.5) PROMIS PF CAT NA
Swarup et al. [72] Observational, retrospective cohort study Posterior sternoclavicular physeal fractures and dislocations 37 10.8% (n = 4) 15.2 (SD 2.1, range 5.8–17.7 years) 4.5 years (SD 3.4, range: 1.0–10.6 years) PROMIS PF UE: 55 (SD 3.5, range: 48 -57) PROMIS PF UE Tertiary referral center for pediatric trauma
Vd Vliet et al. [73] Observational, retrospective cohort study Subtalar arthrodesis for posttraumatic arthritis after a calcaneal fracture 159 37.1% (n = 59) 48 years (IQR, 39–55 years)a 8.8 years (IQR, 4.3–12.2 years; range, 1.1–15.6 years)a PROMIS PF: 45, (IQR 38–51)a PROMIS PF Short Form 10a Level I
vd Vliet et al. [74] Observational, retrospective cohort study Open reduction internal fixation for tibial pilon fracture 225 39% (n = 88) 48 (IQR, 37–58 years)a 82 (IQR, 45–120 months)a PROMIS PF: 49 (IQR 44–57)a PROMIS PF Short Form 10a Level I
v Leeuwen et al. [75] Observational, prospective cohort study Orthopedic trauma patients (fractures) 124 50% (n = 62) 54 (SD 19, range: 18- 93 years) NA PROMIS PF: 36 (9.5), 95% Confidence interval 34–38
PROMIS PI: 50 (8.4), 95% Confidence interval 48–51
PROMIS PF CAT and PROMIS Pain Intensity Tertiary care hospital
van Wyngaarden et al. [76] Observational, prospective cohort study Lower extremity fracture (pelvis/acetabulum, femur, tibia, patella, ankle/foot) 122 45% (n = 52) 42.1 (SD, 14.6) NA PROMIS Depression: 54.2 (SD 9.1)
PROMIS PI 59.1 (SD 7.7)
PROMIS Depression CAT and PROMIS PI CAT Level I
Verhiel et al. [77] Case series Essex-Lopresti injury (ELI) 16 12.5% (n = 2) 42 (SD 10) 10 years (IQR, 8.0–12) years)a PROMIS PF UE: 36 (IQR: 33–38). Conservative treatment PROMIS
PF UE 41 (IQR: 32–50), operative treatment PROMIS PF UE 33 (IQR: 33–37)a
PROMIS PF UE Level I and community hospital
Vincent et al. [78] Randomized controlled study, secondary observational analysis Lower body fractures (tibia/fibula, femur, pelvis, patella, metatarsals) and upper extremity fractures (radius, ulna, humerus) 101 40.6 (n = 41) 43.5 (SD 16.4, range 40.2–46.7 years) NA PROMIS PF: acute care total cohort 27.0 (SD 7.1), No Depression 26.3 (SD 7.4), Depression 29.4 (SD 6.7). 2 weeks total cohort 31.6 (SD 6.2), No Depression 31.6 (SD 6.2), Depression 31.6 (SD 6.2). 6 weeks total cohort 33.2 (SD 6.2), No Depression 33.4 (SD 6.5), Depression 32.7 (SD 4.6). 12 weeks All 37.8 (SD 7.1), No Depression 38.3 (SD 7.3), Depression 35.3 (SD 5.2)
PROMIS satisfaction with social roles and activities: acute care total cohort 40.7 (SD 10.1), No Depression (SD 10.0), Depression 37.5 (SD 10.3). 2 weeks total cohort 43.9 (SD 8.11), No Depression 44.4 (SD 8.5), Depression 42.1 (SD 5.6). 6 weeks total cohort 45.9 (SD 8.4), No Depression 47.1 (SD 7.9), Depression 40.3 (SD 8.8). 12 weeks total cohort 50.0 (SD 10.2), No Depression 50.8 (SD 10.0), Depression 45.6 (SD 10.1)
PROMIS Psychosocial illness impact-positive, Acute care total cohort 52.8 (SD 9.9), No Depression 54.6 (SD 9.6), Depression 44.2 (SD 6.5), 2 weeks total cohort 53.6 (SD 9.5), No Depression 54.8 (SD 9.8), Depression 47.8 (SD 5.1), 6 weeks total cohort 54.6 (SD 10.7), No Depression 56.1 (SD 10.3), Depression 47.1 (SD 10.0), 12 weeks total cohort 55.8 (SD 12.7), No Depression 58.1 (SD 8.8), Depression 44.8 (SD 12.7)
PROMIS PF, PROMIS satisfaction with social roles and activities and PROMIS psychosocial illness impact-positive Level I
Virkus et al. [79] Observational, retrospective cohort study OTA/AO 41-C (Schatzker 6) BTP (Bicondylar tibial plateau) fracture treated with open reduction and internal fixation 52 40.4% (n = 21) One-Stage Fixation 48 years, Two-Stage Fixation 51 years 21.8 months (range 6–41 months) PROMIS PF: One-Stage Fixation 40, Two- Stage Fixation 40. PROMIS PI: One-Stage Fixation 61, wo- Stage Fixation 56 PROMIS PF and PROMIS PI Level I
Wilkens et al. [80] Observational, cross-sectional study Finger, hand, or wrist injury (finger fracture, metacarpal fracture, wrist fracture, finger sprain finger, laceration, mallet fracture, carpal bone fracture, or wrist sprain.) 149 51% (n = 76) 46 (IQR 28–61 years)a NA PROMIS PF UE: Hand posture Yes 32 (SD 8), Hand posture NO 34 (SD8)
PROMIS Depression CAT: Hand posture Yes 48 (IQR 41–55), Hand posture NO 48 [IQR 42–530
PROMIS PI: Hand posture Yes 59 (IQR 56–64), Hand posture NO: 59 (IQR 54–63)a
PROMIS PF CAT, PROMIS PI CAT, PROMIS PF UE and PROMIS Depression Tertiary care hospital
  1. PI pain interference, PF physical function, PF UE physical function upper extremity, UE upper extremity, CAT computer adapted testing, NA not applicable, LE PF lower extremity physical function, ES emotional support, IS instrumental support, NM not mentioned, SSR syndesmotic screw removal, ORIF open reduction and internal fixation, T-scores: range from 0 to 100, mean of 50, SD of 10 points
  2. A higher score for positive constructs is better (i.e. PF, PF UE, PF mobility, LE PF, ES, IS, global and mental health, psychosocial illness impact-positive, satisfaction with social roles and activities, strength impact, peer relationships and mood) and worse for negative constructs (i.e. PI, Pain Intensity, pain behaviour, depression and emotional distress-anxiety)
  3. aMedian follow-up/age/PROMIS score. T-scores: range from 0 to 100, mean of 50, SD of 10 points