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Table 3 Methodological quality and assessment measurement properties

From: Content validity and measurement properties of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale in patients with fractures of the lower extremities: a systematic review

  Structural validity Internal consistency Reliability
  Risk of bias Assessment measurement properties 1 Risk of bias Assessment measurement properties Risk op bias Assessment measurement properties
Garratt, Naumann [32] doubtful CFA: LEFS unidimensional TLI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.091; LEFS multidimensional TLI = 1.00, RMSEA 0.073
TLI waarde ( +), RMSAE waarde (?)
inadequate Cronbach's alpha (scale) α = 0.96
sufficient structural validity (?), Cronbach's alpha ( +)
adequate Test–retest ICC 0.91 ( +)
Hsu, Tsai [31]       
Lin, Moseley [33] doubtful IRT: criteria followed Z- standardized statistic less than 2.0 or ≥ 2.0 (-): 3 items failed to conform to Rasch expectations; no further information reported (?) inadequate Baseline Cronbach's alpha α = 0.92, short-term follow-up α = 0.94, medium-term follow-up α = 0.90
sufficient structural validity (?), Cronbach's alpha ( +)
  
Ponkilainen, Tukiainen [36] doubtful Correlation LEFS scores with 15D total score 0.67 (0.57- 0.74), LEFS and FIT index 0.44 (0.31- 0.57), LEFS and VAS general health − 0.66 (− 0.76 to − 0.55) (?)     
Repo, Tukiainen [34] doubtful Maximum likelihood factor analysis with oblimin rotation: LEFS loads on two factors, no further information reported (?) inadequate Cronbach's alpha (scale) α = 0.96
sufficient structural validity (?), Cronbach's alpha ( +)
adequate Test–retest ICC 0.93 (95% CI, 0.91- 0.95) ( +)
Repo, Tukiainen [35] adequate IRT: unideminsionality not violated ( +) inadequate Cronbachs alpha α = 0.95
sufficient structural validity (?), Cronbach's alpha ( +)
  
  Measurement error Hypotheses testing for construct validity*   
  Risk of bias Assessment measurement properties Risk of bias assessment measurement properties   
Garratt, Naumann [32] adequate SDC individual 12.49, SDC group 0.93, MIC not defined (?) inadequate Spearman correlation LEFS and OMAS 0.86, LEFS and SEFAS − 0.84, LEFS and SF-36 physical function 0.85, LEFS and EQ-5D index 0.73, ASA classification − .026 *   
Hsu, Tsai [31]    inadequate Correlation LEFS scores with walking speed (r = 0.60, p = 0.044) and step length (r = 0.68, p = 0.021) *   
Lin, Moseley [33]       
Ponkilainen, Tukiainen [36]       
Repo, Tukiainen [34] adequate SEM 4.1, MIC not defined (?) inadequate Spearman correlation LEFS and 15D total index r = 0.66, FIT index physical activity r = 0.46, LEFS and VAS Foot and ankle pain at rest r = − 0.5, LEFS and VAS Foot and ankle pain during activity r = − 0.69, LEFS and VAS Foot and ankle stiffness r = 0.62 *   
Repo, Tukiainen [35]       
  Responsiveness construct approach (i.e. hypotheses testing: comparison with other outcome measurement)   Responsiveness construct approach (i.e. hypotheses testing: before and after intervention)    
  Risk of bias Assessment measurement properties Risk of bias Assessment measurement properties   
Garratt, Naumann [32]       
Hsu, Tsai [31]       
Lin, Moseley [33] inadequate Guyatt responsiveness ratio: short-term 1.99, medium-term 1.74; External criterion for improvement = the global perceived effect scale (?) inadequate Effect size short-term 1.92, medium-term 3.33; standardized response mean short-term 1.91, medium-term 2.95 (?)   
Ponkilainen, Tukiainen [36]       
Repo, Tukiainen [34]       
Repo, Tukiainen [35]       
  1. 1 “ + ” = sufficient,” – “ = insufficient, “?” = indeterminate
  2. ASA classification = ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status classification system
  3. CFA = confirmatory factor analysis
  4. IRT = item response theory
  5. MIC = minimally important change
  6. TFI = Tucker-Lewis Index
  7. RMSEA = Root means square error of approximation
  8. SDC = Smallest detectable change
  9. OMAS = Olerund Molander Ankle Score
  10. VAS = Visual analog scale
  11. *Authors have decided not to rate this property due to unclear construct of the LEFS