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Table 1 Descriptive Statistics of Caregivers

From: Characterizing the quality-of-life impact of Duchenne muscular dystrophy on caregivers: a case-control investigation

Variable DMD caregivers (n = 566) Comparison caregivers (n = 594) p from T- or chi-square test Variance explained If p < .05
Mean SD Min Max Mean SD Min Max
Age 41.6 8.8 21 72 43.8 11.7 20 77 < 0.0005 0.01
Gender Frequency %    Frequency %    < 0.0005 0.04
 Male 140 25%    267 45%     
 Female 426 75%    327 55%     
Marital status          0.04 0.01
 Never married 31 5%    44 7%     
 Married 453 80%    454 76%     
 Cohabitation/domestic partner 40 7%    31 5%     
 Separated 11 2%    9 2%     
 Divorced 23 4%    45 8%     
 Widowed 5 1%    10 2%     
 Missing 3 1%    1 0%     
Race (check all that apply)           
 Black 47 8%    69 12%    0.06  
 White 519 92%    525 88%    0.05  
 Other 21 4%    49 8%    NA  
Hispanic ethnicity          0.045 0.004
 Yes 57 10%    83 14%     
 No 490 87%    495 83%     
 Missing 19 3%    16 3%     
Level of education          < 0.0005 0.11
 Less than 12th grade 6 1%    2 0%     
 High school diploma 59 10%    54 9%     
 Technical (Vocational) degree 66 12%    15 3%     
 Some college 92 16%    83 14%     
 2-year University degree 89 16%    51 9%     
 4-year University degree 171 30%    188 32%     
 Masters degree 53 9%    183 31%     
 Doctoral degree 5 1%    18 3%     
 Missing 25 4%    0 0%     
Recruitment Source          NA  
 Rare patient voice 49 9%    0 0%     
 Patient advocacy groups 87 15%    0 0%     
 Word of mouth 428 76%    0 0%     
 IPSOS 0 0%    594 100%     
 Missing 2 0%    0 0%     
  Mean SD Min Max Mean SD Min Max   
Comorbidities, out of 15 presented 1.3 1.7 0 9 1.6 1.7 0 10 < 0.01 0.01
Specific Comorbidities* Frequency %    Frequency %     
 Arthritis 76 13%    85 15%    0.45  
 Asthma 50 9%    67 12%    0.10  
 Back Pain 189 33%    228 40%    0.02 0.01
 Cancer now or in the past 18 3%    24 4%    0.35  
 Depression 131 23%    130 23%    0.92  
 Diabetes 20 4%    71 13%    < 0.0005 0.03
 Heart Disease 11 2%    14 3%    0.50  
 High Blood Pressure 53 9%    114 20%    < 0.0005 0.02
 Insomnia 117 21%    98 17%    0.15  
 Kidney Disease 3 1%    7 1%    0.23  
 Liver Disease 5 1%    3 1%    0.44  
 Lung Disease 3 1%    6 1%    0.35  
 Stroke 3 1%    9 2%    0.10  
 Ulcer or Stomach Disease 18 3%    20 4%    0.74  
 Other 66 12%    55 10%    0.30  
  Mean SD Min Max Mean SD Min Max   
BMI 26.9 6.0 16.5 40.0 27.1 5.8 15 40 0.49  
Smoking Status Frequency %    Frequency %    < 0.0005 0.07
 Never Smoked 447 79%    337 57%     
 Used to Smoke 58 10%    68 11%     
 Some Days Currently 23 4%    70 12%     
 Every Day Currently 35 6%    116 20%     
 Missing 3 1%    3 1%     
Work Status          < 0.0005 0.07
 Employed 323 57%    432 73%     
 Unemployed 202 36%    91 15%     
 Retired 10 2%    40 7%     
 Disabled due to medical condition 10 2%    20 3%     
 Missing 21 4%    11 2%     
Hours Worked per Week          < 0.0005 0.04
 Does not apply 242 43%    162 27%     
 < 20 15 3%    12 2%     
 20-29 41 7%    33 6%     
 30-39 75 13%    139 23%     
 40+ 193 34%    248 42%     
COVID-Specific Variables           
Whether anyone in household infected (%)          < 0.0005 0.04
 Definitely no 489 86%    440 74%     
 Probably no 58 10%    79 13%     
 Probably yes 8 1%    29 5%     
 Definitely yes 3 1%    33 6%     
  Mean SD Min Max Mean SD Min Max   
 Financial hardship 18.8 9.0 6 42 21.4 7.2 6 42 < 0.0005 0.02
 Isolation 14.1 6.5 4 28 14.3 5.8 4 28 0.68  
 Social support 16 4.9 0 23 16.5 5.2 0 23 0.15  
 Continuity of healthcare 2.6 0.7 0 3 2.5 0.8 0 3 0.09  
  1. *A non-response was counted as the absence of the comorbidity in question