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Table 2 Key usages of PROMs data at the micro, meso, and macro levels within the system

From: A multi-level approach for the use of routinely collected patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) data in healthcare systems

Micro Meso Macro
Patient and Clinician
Informs patient management and care plan
Healthcare Organization
Informs performance measurement and evaluation
Healthcare System
Informs resource planning and allocation
Patient completes the PROM prior or during clinical encounter. The PROM could be used to:
Identify health issues as reported by patients, especially those that may go unnoticed (e.g., pain, anxiety)
Screen for specific symptoms or health problems
Monitor patients' outcomes over time to inform treatment decisions
Triage patients according to their self-reported health problems to inform care delivery
Empower patients to share how they feel about their health with their care providers
PROM completed by multiple patients at various clinics are aggregated and data analyzed to:
Assess and monitor patients' health outcomes at a group level
Evaluate the performance of an organization in comparison with best practices and benchmarks
Examine the effectiveness of a health intervention or program
Establish benchmarks and best practices for providers (individuals)
Measure outcomes as compared to cost and healthcare utilization at the organization level
PROM completed by multiple patients at various clinical sites are aggregated and data analyzed to:
Compare providers’ performance across the healthcare system
Compare patients' response to treatments or interventions across healthcare delivery sites
Identify key health problems at the system level
Establish benchmarks and best practices for providers (organizations)
Measure outcomes as compared to cost and healthcare utilization at the system level