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Table 3 Cognitive probes based on Tourangeau [34] and Willis [37]

From: Adaptation of the barriers to help-seeking for trauma (BHS-TR) scale: a cross-cultural cognitive interview study with female intimate partner violence survivors in Iceland

Category of probes Example
Comprehension probe What do you understand by …?
Interpretation probe What does the term … mean to you?
Paraphrasing probe Can you tell me in your own words what this item is asking?
Process probe How did you arrive at that answer?
Recall probe How do you remember that you …?
Elaborative probe Tell me more, why do you say that?
Sensitivity probe Is it all right to ask about this, or do you think that this item is inappropriate?
Evaluative probe Do you feel this item is easy or difficult to answer?