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Table 2 Principles of community translations applied to test items

From: Shared decision making and the practice of community translation in presenting a pre-final Afrikaans for the Western Cape Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire: a proposal for improved translation and cross-cultural adaptation

Item Principles
Code switching [2, 20] Non-parallel community translation: para text [2] Non-parallel community translation: simplify text (colloquial or dialectic use of language) [2, 3] Community translation approach: using simple language [2, 3] Community translation approach: short sentences [2] Community translation approach: don’t use cumbersome concepts [2] Community translation approach: Avoid use of passive voice [2] Community translation approach: address the reader directly [2, 3]
Title of the questionnaire: Disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand.        
Instruction on first page      
Instruction page for first 21 test items:        
Wording of five point Likert scale for items 1 to 21         
Item 1: Opening a tight or new jar.         
Item 3: Turning a key         
Item 6: Place an object on a shelf above you head.         
Item 7: Source version: Do heavy household chores (e.g., wash walls, wash floors).         
Item 8: Garden or do yard work        
Item 9: Make a bed        
Item 10: Carry a shopping bag or briefcase       
Item 11: Carry a heavy object (over 10 lbs)         
Item 12: Change a lightbulb overhead       
Item 13: Wash and blow dry your hair         
Item 14: Wash your back         
Item 15: Put on a pullover sweater.       
Item 17, 18 and 19: Relating to recreational activities       
Item 20: Manage transportation needs (getting from one place to another).        
Item 21: Sexual activities         
Wording of five point Likert scale for items 22 to 29         
Item 22: During the past week, to what extent has your arm, shoulder or hand problem interfered with your normal social activities with family, friends, neighbours or groups?      
Item 23: During the past week were you limited in your work or other regular daily activities as a result of your arm, shoulder or hand problem?      
Item 26: Tingling (pins and needles) in your arm, shoulder or hand.       
Item 28: Stiffness in your arm, shoulder or hand.       
Item 29: During the past week, how much difficulty have you had sleeping because of the pain in your arm, shoulder or hand?       
Item 30: I feel less capable, less confident or less useful because of my arm, shoulder or hand problem.        
Work module and Sport and Performing arts Module