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Table 3 Comparison of two potential short forms selected through a combination of psychometric properties and content validity considerations

From: State of the psychometric methods: patient-reported outcome measure development and refinement using item response theory

DSM-V CriterionItemShort Form 1Short Form 1
Rank Order
(based on 51 items)
Short Form 2Short Form 2
Rank Order
(based on 51 items)
1. Depressed mood most of dayI felt unhappyx4x4
I felt depressed x3
2. Little interest or pleasure in doing thingsI had trouble enjoying the things I used to enjoyx18 
I felt I had nothing to look forward to  x9
3. Symptoms: psychomotor retardation or agitationI reacted slowly to things that were done or saidx46 
4. Symptoms: insomnia/ hypersomnia
5. Symptoms: fatigueI felt that everything I did was an effortx39 
6. Symptoms: worthlessnessI felt I was not as good as other peoplex24 
I felt worthless x2
I felt like a failure x6
7. Symptoms: excessive guiltI felt guiltyx37 
8. Symptoms: diminished ability to think/ concentrate or indecisivenessI had trouble making decisionsx26 
9. Symptoms: suicidal ideationI felt I had no reason for livingx13 
I felt like I wanted to give up on everything x8
10. Symptoms: significant weight gain or loss/appetite loss• I had little desire to eat
• I ate more than usual
• I lost weight without trying
11. Significant distress or impairmentI felt that nothing could cheer me up x5
I felt emotionally exhausted x11
 Symptoms: hopelessI felt hopelessx1x1
 Symptoms: helplessI felt helpless x7
 Symptoms: withdrew from othersI withdrew from othersx25