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Table 1 Findings from Expert Panel meetings on Hausa version of SS-QoL 2.0 scale

From: Cross-cultural adaptatiion and validation of the stroke specific quality of life 2.0 scale into Hausa language

Original items Consensus Translation Back-translation (BT) Problems Resolution
1.The title of the scale Stroke-Specific Quality of life scale Shanyewar barin jiki: tambayoyi a kan kebantattun hanyoyin gudanar da rayuwa. Kashi na 2.0 BT1: Questions about exclusive ways to conduct life, Part2“ BT2: Paralysis of one side of the body: questions concerning activities of daily living”. BT did not capture the fact that the scale is stroke-specific. This was seen to as reflection of inadequacy in the forward translation Translation of the title of the scale was modified to capture ‘stroke specific’
2..Response option,- ‘some trouble’ Na iyayi da kyar BT1: “I did it but hardly” BT2:“I can do it but with difficulty” The BT1 is misleading because ‘hardly’ can also mean ‘rarely’ which does not reflect the concept in the English version. BT2 did not show comparable differences as indicated in the English version. Hausa translation of the response option was recast to be consistent with the desired concept
3. SC2, “Do you have trouble eating? For example cutting food or swallowing” Ka samu matsala wajen tauna ko hadiyar abinci? BT1: Did you encounter any problem chewing or swallowing food? BT2: Did you have any problem with chewing or swallowing during eating? ‘for example’ was omitted in the translation while cutting was replaced with chewing The omitted word was not necessary to convey the intend meaning, while cutting was not applicable to Hausa local food
4. SC4.Did you have trouble getting dressed? For example, putting on socks or shoes, buttoning buttons or zipping. Ka samu matsala wajen sa kaya? Kamar sa safa ko takalmi ko sa maballi da jan zif na riga? Did you encounter problem wearing your clothes? For example wearing socks, shoes, and buttons or zipping the dress? ‘Zipping the dress’ was used because the pair of trouser of native wear for Hausa men uses ‘cloth belt’ and not zip ‘Tying up your trousers’ was added to examples of dressing.
V1, “Did you have trouble seeing the television well enough to enjoy a show?” Ka samu cikas wajen jin dadin kallon talabijin? Did you have any problem with watching television” The concept “well enough to enjoy a show” was not captured in the two BT This was corrected
6.V3; “Did you have trouble seeing things off to one side” Ka samu matsalar ganin abubuwa da idanunka ba daidai ba? BT1: “Did you have any difficulty seeing things properly with your eyes” BT2: “Did you have problems with your eyes not seeing some objects very well?” BT did not capture the concept of ‘seeing from one side’ as contained in the English version The item was translated again to capture the desired concept.
7.M1 “Did you have trouble walking? (if you can’t walk, circle 1 and go to question M7)” M1. Ka samu cikas wajen yin tafiya? (idan ba ka iya tafiya to ka kewaye lamba ta M1 sannan ka tafi lamba ta M7) “Did you have any problem with walking? (If you were not able to walk circle question M1 and move to question M7) ‘question’ M1 instead of response option 1 that was written in the original English version ‘question’ should be removed.
8.UE4, Did you have trouble zipping a zipper’ Ka samu matsalar jan zif/mazagi? “Did you have problem pulling your zip or rope of the trousers?” ‘Rope’ that is, cloth belt rather than zip is used to tighten trouser by most Hausa men rope’ should be removed from item UE4 and added to examples of item SC1
9. MD2 ‘I was discouraged about my future’ Na debe haso da rayuwata a gaba “I lost hope for the future” ‘Discouraged’ and ‘lost hope’ in the BT differ The item was translated again
10.FR5 ‘I didn’t join in activities just- for- fun with my family’ Ban shiga wasu sha’anoni na farin ciki tare da iyalina ba BT1:‘I did not have any family activities which interest me’ BT2: ‘I don’t feel happy with my spouse again’ just-for-fun’ was not well translated The item was translated again.
11.SR1, ‘I didn’t go out as often as I would like’ Ban samu zarafin fita waje sosai kamar yadda nake so ba BT1: ‘I was not able to be going out as I wanted’ BT2: I didn’t have the opportunity of going out the way I wanted. BT did not capture the frequency of going out indicated in the original English version Repeat of translation was done to accommodate this omission.
12.In the section of pre and post stroke ratings, the phrase ‘before the stroke’ in the response options na samu rashin lafiyar BT1: ‘after I got the ailment’ BT2:‘after the affectation’ BT not consistent with the original English version. The response option was translated again to be consistent with ‘before the stroke’ used in the English version