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Table 5 Item fit statistics for RM and GLLRM respectively

From: Measurement of alienation among adolescents: construct validity of three scales on powerlessness, meaninglessness and social isolation

   RM GLLRM
Alienation dimension & item Observed gamma coefficients Expected gamma coefficients sd p Expected gamma coefficients sd p
Powerlessness        
Cannot overcome problems 0.702 0.633 0.024 < 0.001* 0.696 0.021 0.761
Cannot manage things 0.674 0.631 0.024 0.0781 0.694 0.021 0.363
Feeling helpless 0.493 0.633 0.025 < 0.0001* 0.489 0.032 0.903
Meaninglessness        
Things have no meaning 0.570 0.462 0.020 < 0.0001* 0.563 0.018 0.686
Not knowing what is going on 0.570 0.456 0.020 < 0.0001* 0.575 0.018 0.807
School is not preparing me for the future 0.242 0.454 0.021 < 0.0001* 0.240 0.024 0.937
Social isolation        
Feeling left out 0.684 0.547 0.024 < 0.0001* 0.682 0.019 0.922
Not feeling close to family 0.533 0.563 0.027 0.265 0.514 0.029 0.518
No support when unhappy 0.587 0.586 0.029 0.974 0.602 0.029 0.603
Feeling lonely 0.618 0.535 0.022 < 0.001* 0.613 0.020 0.770
Not belonging 0.385 0.550 0.021 < 0.0001* 0.397 0.025 0.625
  1. *Significant differences between the expected and actually observed gamma coefficients on a 1% level of significance