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Table 4 Test for global homogeneity and global DIF in relation to covariates by dimension of alienation

From: Measurement of alienation among adolescents: construct validity of three scales on powerlessness, meaninglessness and social isolation

    RM GLLRM
Alienation dimension Global homogeneity & DIF Covariates χ2 df p χ2 df p
Powerlessness
  Global homogeneity   37.7 5 < 0.001 13.1 17 0.728
  Global DIF Sex 28.4 5 < 0.001 14.3 15 0.506
   Age group 30.6 5 < 0.001 11.0 15 0.756
   SEP 55.3 30 < 0.01 118.9 102 0.121
   Migration status 22.2 10 0.014 31.1 22 0.095
   Physical inactivity 12.0 5 0.035 28.6 17 0.038
Meaninglessness
  Global homogeneity   160.5 5 < 0.001 10.4 11 0.498
  Global DIF Sex 11.7 5 0.040 19.2 11 0.058
   Age group 16.9 5 < 0.01 7.2 9 0.616
   SEP 27.5 30 0.599 58.7 66 0.726
   Migration status 10.2 10 0.426 19.3 22 0.627
   Physical inactivity 3.3 5 0.659 11.4 11 0.409
Social isolation
  Global homogeneity   77.2 9 < 0.001 17.9 31 0.970
  Global DIF Sex 92.1 9 < 0.001 29.0 15 0.016
   Age group 16.4 9 0.678 30.0 27 0.315
   SEP 54.6 54 0.453 175.3 186 0.702
   Migration status 34.8 18 0.010 89.8 62 0.012
   Physical inactivity 6.6 9 0.678 32.9 31 0.374