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Table 3 DIF and LD present in the three scales

From: Measurement of alienation among adolescents: construct validity of three scales on powerlessness, meaninglessness and social isolation

Alienation dimension LD/DIF Items and covariates χ2 df p
Powerlessness LD ‘Cannot overcome problems’ & ‘Cannot manage things’ 83.54 4 < 0.001
DIF ‘Feeling helpless’ & ‘Migration status’ 14.49 4 < 0.01
‘Feeling helpless’ & ‘Age group’ 16.55 2 < 0.001
‘Feeling helpless’ & ‘Sex’ 21.80 2 < 0.001
Meaninglessness LD ‘Things have no meaning’ & ‘Not knowing what is going on’ 371.61 4 < 0.001
DIF ‘Things have no meaning’ & ‘Age group’ 9.54 2 < 0.01
Social isolation LD ‘Feeling left out’ & ‘Feeling lonely’ 236.71 4 < 0.001
  ‘Not feeling close to family’ & ‘No support when unhappy’ 127.93 4 < 0.001
  ‘Not feeling close to family’ & ‘Not belonging’ 39.09 4 < 0.001
DIF ‘Feeling left out’ & ‘Sex’ 26.18 2 < 0.001
‘Not feeling close to family’ & ‘Age group’ 13.49 2 0.001
‘No support when unhappy’ & ‘Sex’ 29.94 2 < 0.001
‘Feeling lonely’ & ‘Sex’ 6.76 2 0.022
‘Not belonging’ & ‘Sex’ 7.65 2 0.022