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Table 2 Percentage with high or medium indication of alienation item by item stratified by sex and age

From: Measurement of alienation among adolescents: construct validity of three scales on powerlessness, meaninglessness and social isolation

Boys Girls
Alienation dimension and indicator of alienation n 13-year olds (n = 824) 15-year olds (n = 718) n 13-year olds (n = 828) 15-year olds (n = 713)
Degree of alienation Degree of alienation Degree of alienation Degree of alienation
  13-year olds 15-year olds High Medium High Medium 13-year olds 15-year olds High Medium High Medium
Powerlessness a
Cannot overcome problems 805 697 3.4 15.9 3.0 10.6 816 702 5.6 17.7 2.6 13.5
Cannot manage things 804 697 2.1 17.6 2.3 12.2 813 702 2.7 20.7 2.4 17.4
Feeling helpless 800 696 3.8 8.4 4.0 9.8 813 702 5.2 16.1 3.7 21.4
Meaninglessness a
Things have no meaning 791 691 18.2 35.9 23.9 36.6 807 691 18.1 36.3 17.2 40.2
Not knowing what is going on 791 690 11.9 32.5 15.7 32.2 813 692 16.0 31.0 13.0 37.0
School is not preparing me for the future 783 690 13.2 21.5 13.0 23.0 807 688 13.1 26.0 9.9 24.3
Social isolation a
Feeling left out 803 699 3.7 10.5 6.0 10.9 815 700 4.9 19.5 3.6 18.7
Not feeling close to family 804 697 2.9 7.7 4.5 10.3 812 699 4.9 8.9 4.3 13.0
No support when unhappy 802 694 4.6 7.7 5.0 7.2 812 699 3.2 6.0 3.0 5.6
Feeling lonely 818 713 3.9 19.3 4.6 21.0 823 709 6.6 30.1 5.1 29.8
Not belonging 789 691 10.9 16.7 11.4 18.7 809 689 13.0 22.4 11.9 20.9
  1. aNot all 3083 pupils had complete item information. Only pupils who answered all items in the scale and covariates were included in the scale validation analysis in question